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Warsaw, Poland

The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of science headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry. Wikipedia.

Wilczynski G.M.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

Recent studies in neurons indicate that the large-scale chromatin architectural framework, including chromosome territories or lamina-associated chromatin, undergoes dynamic changes that represent an emergent level of regulation of neuronal gene-expression. This phenomenon has been implicated in neuronal differentiation, long-term potentiation, seizures, and disorders of neural plasticity such as Rett syndrome and epilepsy. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neuroepigenetic Disorders'. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Wrzosek A.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology
Cell Calcium | Year: 2014

NS1619 (1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimidazole-2-one) is widely used as a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel opener. It was previously reported that activation of BKCa channels by NS1619 could protect the cardiac muscle against ischaemia and reperfusion injury. This study reports the effects of NS1619 on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in H9C2 and C2C12 cells as well as its molecular mechanism of action. The effects of NS1619 on Ca2+ homeostasis in C2C12 and H9C2 cells were assessed using the Fura-2 fluorescence method. Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles isolated from rat skeletal muscles and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity were measured. The effect of NS1619 on the isometric force of papillary muscle contraction in the guinea pig heart was also examined. H9C2 and C2C12 cells treated with NS1619 released Ca2+ from internal stores in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca2+ accumulation by the SR vesicles was inhibited by NS1619 treatment. NS1619 also decreased the activity of SERCA derived from rat skeletal muscle. The calcium release from cell internal stores and inhibition of SERCA by NS1619 are pH dependent. Finally, NS1619 had a profound effect on the isometric force of papillary muscle contraction in the guinea pig heart. These results indicate that NS1619 is a potent modulator of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in H9C2 and C1C12 cells due to its interaction with SRs. The primary target of NS1619 is SERCA, which is located in SR vesicles. The effect of NS1619-mediated SERCA inhibition on cytoprotective processes should be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lukasiuk K.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology | Becker A.J.,University of Bonn
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Epileptogenesis, a process leading to a reduced threshold for seizures after transient brain insults, as well as the mechanisms underlying the propensity to generate spontaneous epileptic seizures, are highly dynamic processes. Biomarkers-objective measures of biological processes-would be excellent tools for monitoring epileptogenesis and the dynamics of increased seizure propensity, as well as the potential to interfere, for example pharmacologically, with these key pathological aspects of epilepsy. Molecular biomarkers have revolutionized therapies, as well as response prediction and monitoring of therapies in other biomedical fields. However, high-impact molecular biomarkers are still not available in the context of epilepsy. Several factors, such as the large heterogeneity of epileptic syndromes and their underlying pathological patterns, as well as the limited availability of tissue samples, represent a particular challenge to the development of molecular biomarkers in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. However, substantial technical progress has been made recently with respect to biomarker characterization and monitoring by large throughput analysis on the genomic, mRNA, and proteomic levels, starting from minute amounts of brain tissue or body fluids, for example cerebrospinal fluid, blood, serum, or plasma. Given the substantial cellular- and network-level functional pathophysiology involved in epilepsy, it may be beneficial in the future to combine molecular analysis with other methods, such as imaging and electrophysiological biomarkers. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Sikora E.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2013

Cellular senescence is the state of permanent inhibition of cell proliferation. Replicative senescence occurs due to the end replication problem and shortening telomeres with each cell division leading to DNA damage response (DDR). The number of short telomeres increases with age and age-related pathologies. Stress induced senescence, although not accompanied by attrition of telomeres, is also attributed to the DDR induced by irreparable DNA lesions in telomeric DNA. Senescent cells characterized by the presence of γH2AX, the common marker of double DNA strand breaks, and other senescence markers including activity of SA-β-gal, accumulate in tissues of aged animals and humans as well as at sites of pathology. It is believed that cellular senescence evolved as a cancer barrier since non-proliferating senescent cells cannot be transformed to neoplastic cells. On the other hand senescent cells favor cancer development, just like other age-related pathologies, by creating a low grade inflammatory state due to senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Reversal/inhibition of cellular senescence could prolong healthy life span, thus many attempts have been undertaken to influence cellular senescence. The two main approaches are genetic and pharmacological/nutritional modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns cell reprogramming by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in vitro is effective even in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients. The second approach concerns modification of senescence signaling pathways just like TOR-induced by pharmacological or with natural agents. However, knowing that aging is unavoidable we cannot expect its elimination, but prolonging healthy life span is a goal worth serious consideration. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pitkanen A.,University of Eastern Finland | Lukasiuk K.,Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2011

Prevention of epileptogenesis after brain trauma is an unmet medical challenge. Recent molecular profiling studies have provided an insight into molecular changes that contribute to formation of ictogenic neuronal networks, including genes regulating synaptic or neuronal plasticity, cell death, proliferation, and inflammatory or immune responses. These mechanisms have been targeted to prevent epileptogenesis in animal models. Favourable effects have been obtained using immunosuppressants, antibodies blocking adhesion of leucocytes to endothelial cells, gene therapy driving expression of neurotrophic factors, pharmacological neurostimulation, or even with conventional antiepileptic drugs by administering them before the appearance of genetic epilepsy. Further studies are needed to clarify the optimum time window and aetiological specificity of treatments. Questions related to adverse events also need further consideration. Encouragingly, the recent experimental studies emphasise that the complicated process of epileptogenesis can be favourably modified, and that antiepileptogenesis as a treatment indication might not be an impossible mission. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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