Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine

Nelson, United States

Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine

Nelson, United States
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Li J.,Florida International University | Packianathan C.,Florida International University | Rossman T.G.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine | Rosen B.P.,Florida International University
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2017

Arsenic methylation, the primary biotransformation in the human body, is catalyzed by the enzyme As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases (hAS3MT). This process is thought to be protective from acute high-level arsenic exposure. However, with long-term low-level exposure, hAS3MT produces intracellular methylarsenite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsenite (DMAs(III)), which are considerably more toxic than inorganic As(III) and may contribute to arsenic-related diseases. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in putative regulatory elements of the hAS3MT gene have been shown to be protective. In contrast, three previously identified exonic SNPs (R173W, M287T, and T306I) may be deleterious. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of single amino acid substitutions in hAS3MT on the activity of the enzyme that might explain their contributions to adverse health effects of environmental arsenic. We identified five additional intragenic variants in hAS3MT (H51R, C61W, I136T, W203C, and R251H). We purified the eight polymorphic hAS3MT proteins and characterized their enzymatic properties. Each enzyme had low methylation activity through decreased affinity for substrate, lower overall rates of catalysis, or lower stability. We propose that amino acid substitutions in hAS3MT with decreased catalytic activity lead to detrimental responses to environmental arsenic and may increase the risk of arsenic-related diseases. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Fang Y.,Zhejiang University | Fang Y.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine | Cao Z.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine | Hou Q.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Isorhapontigenin (ISO) is a new derivative of stilbene compound that was isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum Cleistostachyum and has been used for treatment of bladder cancers for centuries. In our current studies, we have explored the potential inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms underlying isorhapontigenin anticancer effects on anchorage-independent growth of human bladder cancer cell lines. We found that isorhapontigenin showed a significant inhibitory effect on human bladder cancer cell growth and was accompanied with related cell cycle G0-G1 arrest as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression at the transcriptional level in UMUC3 and RT112 cells. Further studies identified that isorhapontigenin downregulated cyclin D1 gene transcription via inhibition of specific protein 1 (SP1) transactivation. Moreover, ectopic expression of GFP-cyclin D1 rendered UMUC3 cells resistant to induction of cell-cycle G0-G1 arrest and inhibition of cancer cell anchorage-independent growth by isorhapontigenin treatment. Together, our studies show that isorhapontigenin is an active compound that mediates Gnetum Cleistostachyum's induction of cell-cycle G0-G1 arrest and inhibition of cancer cell anchorage-independent growth through downregulating SP1/cyclin D1 axis in bladder cancer cells. Our studies provide a novel insight into understanding the anticancer activity of the Chinese herb Gnetum Cleistostachyum and its isolate isorhapontigenin. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(8); 1492-503. © 2013 AACR.

Einstein S.A.,Rutgers University | Yu C.-H.,Rutgers University | Mainelis G.,Rutgers University | Chen L.C.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

A new, passive particle deposition air sampler, called the Einstein-Lioy Deposition Sampler (ELDS), has been developed to fill a gap in passive sampling for near-field particle emissions. The sampler can be configured in several ways: with a protective hood for outdoor sampling, without a protective hood, and as a dust plate. In addition, there is an XRF-ready option that allows for direct sampling onto a filter-mounted XRF cartridge which can be used in conjunction with all configurations. A wind tunnel was designed and constructed to test the performance of different sampler configurations using a test dust with a known particle size distribution. The sampler configurations were also tested versus each other to evaluate whether or not the protective hood would affect the collected particle size distribution. A field study was conducted to test the sampler under actual environmental conditions and to evaluate its ability to collect samples for chemical analysis. Individual experiments for each configuration demonstrated precision of the sampler. The field experiment demonstrated the ability of the sampler to both collect mass and allow for the measurement of an environmental contaminant i.e. Cr6+. The ELDS was demonstrated to be statistically not different for Hooded and Non-Hooded models, compared to each other and the test dust; thus, it can be used indoors and outdoors in a variety of configurations to suit the user's needs. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Rossman T.G.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine | Klein C.B.,Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine
Metallomics | Year: 2011

Environmental arsenic compounds and their methylated metabolites do not form adducts with DNA, but do cause oxidative DNA damage. Chromosome aberrations are seen at toxic concentrations. Genetic effects that occur at non-toxic concentrations include aneuploidy, comutagenesis (resulting from indirect effects on DNA repair), and delayed mutagenesis (probably secondary to aneuploidy and/or epigenetic effects). Effects of trivalent arsenicals on poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and P53 activation may mediate effects on DNA repair and aneuploidy. A growing literature points to the epigenetic effects of arsenic compounds in cells and in vivo. A review of the current literature on DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA effects is presented. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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