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Shillong, India

Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2016

Hanging is a common method of suicide in India. During autopsy of hanging cases, hyoid becomes one of the integral parts of examination. Many previous research studies in the forensic literature have reported considerable difference in frequency of hyoid fracture in hanging cases. Beside this, there is also lack of unanimity of opinion regarding the relation of different variables of hanging with the hyoid fracture except age of the deceased. The present study is a retrospective analysis of all cases of death due to hanging brought to the department of Forensic Medicine, Assam Medical College & Hospital for medicolegal autopsy from 1st June, 2012 to 31st May, 2013, The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence and pattern of hyoid fracture in the study group and relation of 6 different variables of hanging with the hyoid fracture viz. age, sex, nature of ligature material, level of ligature mark, position of knot and manner of suspension of body. © 2016, World Informations Syndicate. All rights reserved. Source

Vijay Kiran B.,King College | Barman H.,NEIGRIHMS | Iyengar A.,St Johns Medical College Hospital
Indian Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2014

Tubular disorders form a significant proportion of pediatric kidney diseases and are an important differential diagnosis of failure to thrive (FTT) in children. Data regarding their outcome is scarce from India. We evaluated the clinical profile of these children and studied the outcome in terms of their growth and renal failure. This is a retrospective longitudinal study of all children with renal tubular disorders attending a tertiary care pediatric nephrology center from 2005 to 2010. Growth and renal outcomes were assessed by Z scores and estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis and. The common disorders encountered were distal renal tubular acidosis (d-RTA) (44%), Bartter-like (Bartter's and Gitelman) syndromes (22%) followed by hereditary Fanconi syndrome (cystinosis and idiopathic Fanconi syndrome) (13%) and few cases of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypophosphatemic rickets and idiopathic hypercalciuria. Male: female ratio was 1.22. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 (range 0.13-11) years. Growth failure was the presenting feature in 86% of children followed by polyuria (60%) and bone deformities (47%). In 60% of children with hereditary Fanconi syndrome, nephropathic cystinosis was diagnosed, all of whom progressed to stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) within 3.41 ± 1.42 years. With appropriate therapy, catch-up growth was noted in d-RTA and Bartter syndrome. Renal tubular disorders usually present with FTT. d-RTA is the most common etiology followed by Bartter-like syndrome. Renal function is preserved in all these disorders except for nephropathic cystinosis, who ultimately progressed to CKD. With appropriate and inexpensive therapy, these children do grow well. Source

Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2013

The northeastern state of Meghalaya is divided into eleven districts. It was carved out of Assam in 1972, with its capital at Shillong. The practice of Forensic Medicine in the state is still in its infancy. In most districts, medico-legal autopsy is performed by medical officers in Government service, who usually have no forensic qualifications, apart from a long history of exposure to the field. In recent years, there has been a spurt in crimes as well as increase in vehicular movement which resulted in more casualties due to road traffic accidents. Thus, a Government doctor not only has to manage sick patients but also face medico-legal challenges and conduct forensic examination in routine practice. At present, there are three qualified Forensic Specialists in Meghalaya. Health authorities have engaged their services to train medical officers in Government hospitals. However, this measure is inadequate to meet the state's forensic needs. Post-graduate medical courses in the subject would ensure a steady turnover of specialist doctors in this discipline. Meanwhile, forensic orientation programmes may be conducted more regularly to equip doctors in all districts with updated knowledge and skills to handle medico-legal cases. Source

Mundhra R.,Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital | Agarwal M.,NEIGRIHMS
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the foetal outcome in Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid (MSAF). Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health And Medical Sciences, Shillong, India, over a period of eighteen months, from January 2010 to June 2011. A total of 355 pregnant women who had completed more than 37 weeks of gestation, with singleton pregnancies and cephalic presentations were included in this study. 165 cases with MSAF, were thus selected and they were compared with 190 randomly selected controls. Results: Among 165 cases, 27.88% of the cases had regular visits to the Institute at least 3 times previously, 72.12% cases had no previous visit at all. Primigravidas accounted for a majority of cases and approximately 50% cases had gestational ages of more than 40 weeks Pregnancies complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension had statistically significant higher rates of meconium staining among cases (16.97%), as compared to those among controls (7.89%). 21.81% cases had foetal heart rate abnormalities, as were detected by electronic foetal monitoring and presence of foetal bradycardia was statistically higher in cases compared to that in controls. Casearean section rates were nearly double in cases (49.09%). Neonatal outcome was poor in terms of low Apgar score at birth, birth asphyxia, Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) and increased neonatal admission among cases as compared to that among controls. Conclusion: Meconium stained amniotic fluid is really worrisome from both, obstetrician's and paediatrician's points of view, as it increases the caesarean rates, causes birth asphyxia, MAS and increases neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Source

Nath I.,North Bengal Medical College and Hospital | Nath C.K.,NEIGRIHMS | Baruah M.,ESIC Medical College | Pathak M.,Gauhati Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction and Objective: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Local vascular inflammation is increased in diabetes mellitus (DM), which results in higher burden of microvascular and macrovascular complications. The present study was carried out to assess the importance of inflammatory status in nephropathy patients with Type-II DM. Methodology: 80 diagnosed cases of type II DM who had end stage renal disease (Nephropathy Stage-5) were selected for the study, they were further divided equally into 2 sub-categories; Group I (patients who were undergoing haemodialysis) and Group II (patients who were not undergoing haemodialysis). The control group comprised of 40 individuals who were age and sex matched healthy individuals. Inflammatory status was assessed by estimating serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin. R esults: A significant increase in serum CRP and a significant decrease in serum albumin were seen in test group- I and test group-2 as compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between serum albumin and GFR with r=0.904 in the Test Group-I and r=0.946 in Test Group-II. A negative correlation was observed between serum CRP and GFR r = -0.597 in Test Group-I and with r= -0.6231 in Test Group-II. Also, the correlation between CRP and albumin showed a negative trend with r= -0.848 in Test Group-I and with r=-0.78 in Test Group-II. C onclusion: Microinflammation is a common finding in haemodialysis patients who have a history of nephropathy with Type-II diabetes mellitus. With a proper knowledge on factors which lead to this microinflammation, we can employ preventive strategies for a better management of Type-II diabetic nephropathy patients and thereby, for improving their survival. Source

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