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Kroposki B.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Sen P.K.,Colorado School of Mines | Malmedal K.,NEI Electrical Power Engineering Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2013

Climate change concerns mandated renewable portfolio standards, lucrative government incentives, and accelerated cost reduction in renewables, and distributed energy applications are driving steep growth in system installations. Distributed energy resources (DERs) are not commonly connected to a bulk power transmission system but are interconnected near the load in the electric power distribution system. DER includes renewable energy such as wind and solar, fossil-fuel-based generation (microturbines and small gas turbines), and distributed energy storage. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed that ranks utility feeders for implementation of DER systems. This performance index is based on peak-load reduction, increased system capacity, load-generation correlation, and feeder load growth. This is based on a statistical measure that quantifies the relationship between loads and the stochastic nature of renewable resources. This allows the utility to gain insight into improved benefits from nondispatchable renewable resources such as solar and wind technologies as well as dispatchable DER technologies. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Smith S.C.,Lockheed Martin | Sen P.K.,Colorado School of Mines | Kroposki B.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Malmedal K.,NEI Electrical Power Engineering Inc.
Papers Presented at the Annual Conference - Rural Electric Power Conference | Year: 2010

There is an increasing demand both by legislation and the public for a more secured, reliable and efficient power system using dispatchable and non-dispatchable renewable resources. However, the existing design and operational practice of the electrical power grid does not lend itself easily to the incorporation of non-dispatchable renewable energy resources. Distributive Electrical Energy Storage (DESS) is a key to the development and future of all non-dispatchable renewable energy resources in the electrical power grid. This paper provides an overview, discusses the state-of-the-art status and will introduce how DESS can be used to incorporate non-dispatchable renewable resources into the power grid and also provide additional benefits to the power system. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Nelson J.P.,NEI Electrical Power Engineering Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

High resistance grounding (HRG) is a well-proven technology for improving electric reliability for many industrial and utility facilities such as used in petrochemical, automotive, and generating plants. Many such facilities require the increased reliability for production and operational reasons. This paper will discuss the improved personnel safety aspects of using HRG on low-voltage systems. In particular, this paper will discuss the following: 1) the probability of the three common faults occurring within an industrial plant, namely, three-phase, phase-to-phase, and ground faults; 2) how the probability of a ground fault can be used to improve electrical safety with HRG; 3) the impact of a ground fault on a system and the speed at which the ground fault on a solidly grounded system may propagate into a multiphase fault; 4) the risk reduction of a ground fault on an HRG system propagating into a multiphase fault; 5) the potential reduction in serious and fatal arc blast injuries through the use of an HRG system; and 6) potential single-pole breaker clearing issues when a second ground fault occurs on a second phase. This paper will include comments from recent testing, which was conducted at the KEMA Laboratories and presented in a recent IEEE Industry Applications Society Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee paper in September 2014. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Ammerman R.F.,Colorado School of Mines | Gammon T.,John Matthews and Associates | Sen P.K.,Colorado School of Mines | Nelson J.P.,NEI Electrical Power Engineering Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2010

There are many industrial applications of large-scale dc power systems, but only a limited amount of scientific literature addresses the modeling of dc arcs. Since the early dc-arc research focused on the arc as an illuminant, most of the early data was obtained from low-current dc systems. More recent publications provide a better understanding of the high-current dc arc. The dc-arc models reviewed in this paper cover a wide range of arcing situations and test conditions. Even with the test variations, a comparison of dc-arc resistance equations shows a fair degree of consistency in the formulations. A method for estimating incident energy for a dc arcing fault is developed based on a nonlinear arc resistance. Additional dc-arc testing is needed so that more accurate incident-energy models can be developed for dc arcs. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Nelson J.P.,NEI Electrical Power Engineering Inc. | David Lankutis J.,POWER Engineers
Papers Presented at the Annual Conference - Rural Electric Power Conference | Year: 2014

This paper provides a process to quantify the costs associated with interruptions of service to customers of electric utilities. A basic assumption is that in a majority of cases, the most cost effective solution to a given power quality issue involves investment of time and money on both sides of the electric meter. The information included in this paper is intended to guide the engineer from the utility and the engineer from the customer of the utility as they collaborate to justify funds for the solution they have designed. The paper shows that gross errors may be made by utilizing general costs for power outages. It does present reasonable methods to develop realistic costs of power outages to customers in an effort to justify capital investments for improving reliability for the utility customer in their specific situation. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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