Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya |
Aggarwal A.N.,UCMS and GTB Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child’s presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory. © 2015 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation
Agarwal A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2010
To evaluate the characteristics of bicyclespoke injuries in a suburban Indian population. 30 male and 11 female children aged 4 to 12 (mean, 6) years with bicycle-spoke injuries were prospectively studied. Data collected included patient age, gender, position at the time of injury, site, type, and characteristics of the injury. According to the Oestern and Tscherne classification, soft-tissue injuries were classified into grades 0 to 3. 37 patients injured the right foot, and 4 the left foot; 34 by the rear wheel and 7 by the front wheel. All front-wheel injuries involved the forefoot and midfoot. 73% of injuries involved the lateral aspect of the ankle. The most common injury site was the posterior ankle (n = 30), followed by the medial midfoot (n = 7), and the forefoot (n = 3). Partial avulsion of heel flap and an exposed Achilles tendon were each noted in 2 patients. 10, 13, 14, and 4 patients sustained soft-tissue injuries of grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Eight patients had associated fractures. All fractures healed uneventfully. Marginal necrosis of the wound was noted in 5 patients, but none required a skin graft. No patient had functional impairment or residual tenderness of the foot. Bicycle-spoke injuries usually affected the ankle region, and the wound was usually deeper than it appeared on initial examination. Reassessment of the wound after 48 hours is recommended. Severity of soft-tissue injury was the determinant of overall function; bone fractures by themselves did not alter the duration of recovery. To prevent bicyclespoke injuries, spoke guards and foot rests should be used, and children being carried on a bicycle should wear proper shoes. Education on injury mechanism, severity, and preventive measures is also important.
Sinha A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
Saha A.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research |
Kumar M.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya |
Sharma S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences |
And 5 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2015
While studies show that prolonged initial prednisone therapy reduces The frequency of relapses in nephrotic syndrome, they lack power and have risk of bias. In order to examine The effect of prolonged therapy on frequency of relapses, we conducted a blinded, 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 5 academic hospitals in India on 181 patients, 1-12 years old, with a first episode of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Following 12 weeks of standard therapy, in random order, 92 patients received tapering prednisolone while 89 received matching-placebo on alternate days for The next 12 weeks. On intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome of number of relapses at 1 year was 1.26 in The 6-month group and 1.54 in The 3-month group (difference-0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI)-0.75, 0.19). Relative relapse rate for 6-vs. 3-month therapy, adjusted for gender, age, and time to initial remission, was 0.70 (95% CI 0.47-1.10). Similar proportions of patients had sustained remission, frequent relapses, and adverse effects due to steroids. Adjusted hazard ratios for first relapse and frequent relapses with prolonged therapy were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.36-1.07) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.61-1.67), respectively. Thus, extending initial prednisolone treatment from 3 to 6 months does not influence The course of illness in children with nephrotic syndrome. These findings have implications for guiding The duration of therapy of nephrotic syndrome. © 2015 International Society of Nephrology.
Singal A.,University of Delhi |
Khanna D.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2011
Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs). Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers) are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse, and reinfection. To combat the poor response, newer strategies such as combination, sequential, and supplementary therapies have been suggested. In the end, treatment of special populations such as diabetic, elderly, and children is outlined.
Mohta A.,Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014
Primary care physicians are often required to initially manage the children with surgical emergencies. Many neonates with congenital malformations delivered without supervision may also be managed initially by the family physicians. The role of the primary care physician in such cases should be to diagnose the condition correctly, provide immediate care and then refer the newborn or child to higher centre for appropriate management. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.