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Larrain J.,University of Concepcion | Larrain J.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Quandt D.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen | Munoz J.,Real Jardin Botanico CSIC

The new species Bucklandiella araucana Larraín is described from southern Chile. It is characterized by its small size, epilose, almost cucullate leaves, lack of a differentiated basal marginal row of pellucid and straight-walled cells, bistratose and dorsally flat costa at midleaf, smooth to slightly bulging lamina cells, unistratose leaf lamina with scattered bistratose spots at distal margins, undivided, prong-like peristome teeth, and deeply lobed calyptra. The species seems to be an endemic of the volcanic range of the western slopes of the southern Andes (39-42°S), where it grows in Nothofagus forests and open lava fields on the hillsides of the many active volcanoes of the area. Molecular data support the distinctiveness of this new taxon and identify Bucklandiella araucana as sister to B. curiosissima, B. didyma, and B. emersa. A distribution map and illustrations of the new species are presented. The phylogenetic perspectives of our novel molecular results are discussed. © 2011 The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc. Source

Luebert F.,Free University of Berlin | Luebert F.,University of Chile | Weigend M.,Free University of Berlin | Weigend M.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen

Three new species of shrubby Heliotropium sect. Heliothamnus endemic to the Andean inner valleys and the eastern and western slopes of the Peruvian Andes are described as Heliotropium maranjonense, H. pamparomasense and H. oxapampanum. Heliotropium oxapampanum is the first species of the genus described from riparian habitats in the cloud forest. Heliotropium pamparomasense is the tallest species known in the group and forms shrubs to 4 m high with huge inflorescences. Notes on diagnostic characters, distribution and illustration are provided for each species. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Poppinga S.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen | Poppinga S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Koch K.,Nurnberg University of Applied Sciences | Bohn H.F.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen | And 2 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology

Plant surfaces that are slippery for insects have evolved independently several times in the plant kingdom, mainly in the groups of carnivorous plants and kettle trap flowers. The surface morphologies of 53 species from both groups were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the surfaces possess highly diverse topographical structures. We present a classification of 12 types of anti-adhesive surfaces, in regard to the assembly and hierarchy of their structural elements. The observed structural elements are different combinations of epidermal cell curvatures with cuticular folds or 3D epicuticular wax crystals and idioblastic elements. © CSIRO 2010. Source

Koch K.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen | Blecher I.C.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen | Konig G.,Institute For Pharmazeutische Biologie | Kehraus S.,Institute For Pharmazeutische Biologie | Barthlott W.,Nees Institute For Biodiversitat Der Pflanzen
Functional Plant Biology

Most leaves of plants are hydrophobic or even superhydrophobic. Surprisingly the leaves of the tropical herb of Ruellia devosianaMakoyex E. Morr. Hort. (Acanthaceae) are superamphiphilic. Water droplets (10 μL) spread to a film with a contact angle of zero degree within less than 0.3 s. Such surfaces with a high affinity to water are termed superhydrophilic. Droplets of oil applied on R. devosiana leaves and replicas showed a similar spreading behaviour as water. These surfaces are superoleophilic, and in combination with their superhydrophilicity they are called superamphiphilic. Independent of the growing conditions, a reversibility of the superhydrophilicity in R. devosiana leaves was found. Additionally, on 90° tilted leaves a pressure free capillary transport of water occurs against the force of gravity. By using a low pressure environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), the water condensation and evaporation process on the leaves has been observed. The leaf surfaces are composed of five different cell types: conical cells, glands, multicellular hairs, hair-papilla cells and longitudinal expanded, flat epidermis cells, which, in combination with the surrounding papilla cells, form channel like structures. Replication of the leaf surface structure and coating of the replicas with hydrophilic Tween 20 and a water soluble extract gained from the leaf surfaces resulted in artificial surfaces with the same fast water spreading properties as described for the leaves. © 2009 CSIRO. Source

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