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Mahapatra K.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Ramteke D.S.,NEERI | Paliwal L.J.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Geoderma | Year: 2013

Sludge, a by-product of wastewater treatment processes, is an alternative to conventional means of disposal and increasingly applied to agricultural lands as a source of fertilizer. In the present work, sludge generated from food processing industry was applied to agricultural soil as a conditioner and its effect on physio-chemical properties of the soil and crop productivity were studied. The industrial sludge was amended in different proportion (10-50. t/ha) with soil and the feasibility of these amendments were studied. The results revealed that application of sludge to soil increased its pH, EC, CEC and other nutrients such as organic matter and phosphorous. A reduction in the soil nutrients (nitrogen and potassium) in post-harvest soil indicates their uptake from soil by the plant and thus, productivity increases. No indication/evidence of harmful effects of heavy metals from sludge on quality of soil and cultivated product was found, when the amendment was controlled within the range of 50. t/ha for both dry and wet sludge applied. However, deterioration in the growth rate was observed beyond 30. t/ha amendment due to the excess organic and nutrient load accumulated in the soil. The effect of bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer to support the crop productivity were also studied. Thus, food processing industrial sludge application positively affects crop productivity and significantly improves soil quality. Still, much is to be learnt from this study and the present investigation needs to be continued to determine whether the agricultural objectives are satisfied in longer term. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Godfrey S.,UNICEF Mozambique | Labhasetwar P.,NEERI | Wate S.,NEERI | Jimenez B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability. © IWA Publishing 2010.


Gawande S.P.,G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering | Porate K.B.,G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering | Thakre K.L.,VNIT | Bodhe G.L.,Neeri
Proceedings - 3rd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET 2010 | Year: 2010

Power demand increases continuously and it is not economical and reliable to fulfill the demand by thermal based generation methods. To overcome the problems of thermal based generation ,use of non-conventional sources increases very rapidly. These sources are pollution free and economical but creating the problems while synchronization with synchronous generator. Compensating devices like STATCOM are suggested for the issue of stability and synchronization. This paper deals with the combine working by simulation method of oil based synchronous generator and induction generator based micro hydro plant located at remote places. The main objectives of this paper are to control voltage and frequency for variable load. The Simulink model is developed to perform the transient analysis of the proposed scheme. © 2010 IEEE.


Mandal D.,NEERI | Labhasetwar P.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Dhone S.,NEERI | Dubey A.S.,NEERI | And 2 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2011

In India, the per capita water availability is reducing day by day due to rapid growth in population and increasing water demand. Greywater treatment and reuse is one of the feasible options in developing countries like India to overcome this problem. A greywater collection, treatment and reuse system was designed and implemented in an urban household having a water requirement of 165 liter per capita per day (lpcd) and a greywater generation rate of 80 lpcd. An upflow-downflow greywater treatment plant having a screening, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection as major treatment processes was constructed and treated greywater is used for toilet flushing and to irrigate the vegetables in the backyard of the household. Greywater characterisation indicates that COD and BOD are sufficiently reduced during the treatment and there is also substantially reduction in Escherichia coli count. The payback period of this greywater treatment and reuse system is estimated to be 1.6 year. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Mahapatra K.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University | Ramteke D.S.,NEERI | Paliwal L.J.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2012

The present work aims to conduct a process optimization for the production of activated carbon from sludge of food processing industry. The significant feature of this sludge based activated carbon that makes it unique and economic is that it can be produced from waste material. The carbonaceous nature of this sludge does not allow its direct disposal to land because of excess organic and nutrient load contents, however, can be converted to a value added product. This process not only eliminates the need for further treatment of sludge but also reduce the cost of its handling, land filling, and transportation as well as the utilization in the same industry in the purification system. In the present work, activated carbon produced from pyrolysis of sludge was chemically activated by various activating agents. Optimization of impregnation ratio, impregnation time, activation temperature, and activation time was studied. The product was characterized through its iodine value and yield percentage. It was observed that the product had maximum iodine value of 624 mg g -1 with ZnCl 2 as an activating agent. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups attached on the surface of activated carbon which are used in the interaction with the adsorbate during the process of adsorption. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The product formed was applied for methylene blue adsorption. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue dye was examined at room temperature. Adsorption isotherm was drawn by applying Langmuir and Freundlich models fitting the data indict, with an adsorption capacity of 23.6 mg g -1 and 14.2 mg g -1, respectively. The data show that methylene blue adsorption is best suited to Langmuir equation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Elala D.,Cranfield University | Labhasetwar P.,NEERI | Tyrrel S.F.,Cranfield University
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2011

Many water providers in urban developing country contexts have to supply the water intermittently due to the disparity between rapidly growing demand and investment in supply infrastructure. This can lead to water quality risks such as ingress of polluted groundwater and unsafe household storage. This study has investigated the common risks and possible alternative solutions down the supply chain in the Nagpur municipal piped network through quantitative and qualitative data collection. The water quality testing indicated a significant reduction in water quality between tap and point-of-use. Interviews and a sanitary survey indicated storage design, inappropriate extraction practice and children's access as the most frequent household storage risks. The people with socioeconomically lower status were found to be in greatest need of interventions. The study leads to the following recommendations: there is a need for the evolution of a Water Safety Plan to enable supportive structures for good risk assessment which includes all stakeholders from source to pointof- use; community awareness of water quality risks needs to be raised; low cost 'improved' water storage at household level should be promoted; and the levels of residual chlorine should be investigated and adjustments made to assure potable water at point-of-use. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Sharma V.,Sevadal Mahila Mahavidyalaya and Research Academy | Sharma R.,NEERI | Satyanarayan S.,NEERI
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2011

Studies concerning bioaccumulation kinetics and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of heavy metals like zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae tissues including integument, gizzard, clitellum, and head region were undertaken. Calculated BCF, predicted Kow, and predicted Koc showed a significant correlation between heavy metals in different earthworm tissues, in substrate spiked with heavy metals. The regression coefficient (r2) between heavy metal uptake concentration and exposure time varied between 0.73 and 0.99, indicating significant correlation. The Koc was a maximum of 13.9016 in case of Cu and integument at an exposure time of 100 days and a minimum of 0.1114 in case of Cr with respect to head at the same exposure time. Earthworms accumulated heavy metals following chronic exposure to municipal solid waste containing heavy metals. BCF and uptake rate kinetics of heavy metals were calculated and showed increased values in head tissue followed by integument. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Gopalakrishna K.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Shashikala M.,NEERI
6th International Conference on Environmental Informatics, ISEIS 2007 | Year: 2014

In India the sago producing industries are located mainly in the southern region. The waste water from Sago industries is complex and highly organic. It is noted as a significant contributor of pollution it needs organized treatment. The conventional treatment technologies require large space, power intensive and requires skilled monitoring. Hence the Industries are looking for compact, efficient and cost effective treatment options. One of the most advanced option is fluidized bed bio-reactor, where the biomass is cultured on small media kept fluidized in the rector. It has the advantages of both the attached and suspended growth systems. In order to improve the efficiency, reduce the number of media and overall space and cost, studies were done on a hybrid reactor using polypropylene media. The hybrid reactor is a combination of Activated sludge and FBBR. The efficiency for organics removal, nitrification suspended solids removal. For various initial parameters was studied. The study has indicated the hybrid reactor as highly efficient for treatment of strong sago waste water. For organic loading rate of 2.1 to 10.19 kg COD/cum/day the efficiency varied from 95% to 45%. Microbiological studies of the biofloc were also conducted and reported.


Gajghate D.G.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Talwar B.,NEERI | Pipalatkar P.,NEERI | Pustode T.,NEERI
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste | Year: 2012

The study was undertaken to assess the effect on ambient air concentration of and metals attributed to various localized activities at different land-use locations in Chennai City, India. The study for PM 10, toxic metals, and correlation of metal and source apportionment analysis has been carried out at industrial, commercial and residential locations in the city. The monthly levels showed a significant variation among locations, and annual averages of PM 10 were below the CPCB standards. Among the metals analyzed, Zn was found to dominate in all the monitoring locations. The source apportionment studies have indicated that oil burning emissions, waste incinerators and resuspension of road dust are major sources of PM 10 in the study region. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Satyanarayan S.,NEERI | Ramakant,NEERI | Shivayogi,NEERI
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Biogas energy production from cattle dung is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. But dependence only on cattle dung is a limiting factor. Rich nitrogen containing substrate addition to extra carbohydrate digester like cattle dung could improve the biogas production. Detailed performance of the digesters at different ratios of cattle dung and soya sludge has been discussed in this paper considering the cold countries climate. Soya sludge substrate not only has high nitrogen content of 4.0-4.8% but it also has high percentage of volatile solids content in the range of 97.8-98.8%. Soya sludge addition also improved the manurial value of the digested slurry and also improved the dewater-ability of the sludge. Results indicated an increment of 27.0% gas production at 25.0% amendment of soya sludge in non-homogenized cattle dung (NCD) digester. The amount of gas production increased to 46.4% in case of homogenized cattle dung (HCD) with respect to NCD feed at the same amendment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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