Khartoum, Sudan
Khartoum, Sudan

Al-Neelain University is a public university located in Khartoum, Sudan. It was founded in 1955. As of November 2004, Awad Haj Ali was the vice-chancellor of the university.The university is a member of the Federation of the Universities of the Islamic World. Wikipedia.

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Elkhalifah A.E.I.,Neelain University | Maitra S.,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology | Bustam M.A.,Petronas University of Technology | Murugesan T.,Petronas University of Technology
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2013

Different alkali and alkaline earth cation forms of bentonite clay were exchanged with protonated mono-, di- and triethanolamine compounds, to study the effect of the exchanged ammonium cations on the structure characteristics, thermal behavior, surface properties and CO2 adsorption capacities of bentonite clay. The revolution of the interlayer structure characteristics, thermal properties, the specific surface area and elemental analysis were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, BET and CHNS techniques respectively, while the CO2 adsorption capacities were gravimetrically measured by using magnetic suspension balance (MSB) equipment. It was found that the intercalation of ammonium cations into the interlayer space of bentonite clay induced a step change in its basal spacing, depending on their molar mass and the interlayer molecular arrangement. The presence of the characteristic IR peaks of amine compounds in the spectra of bentonite clay adsorbents modified by amines was qualitatively supported by the incorporation of ammonium cations in the interlayer space of bentonite, while the presence of C, H and N elements using CHNS technique was quantitatively confirmed by the intercalation process of amine compounds. It was also found that the molar mass of amines has an inverse effect on the amount of the adsorbed water (intensity), its desorption temperature (position) and the specific surface area of the synthesized materials. The CO2 adsorption capacities on all the studied bentonite clay adsorbents modified by amines were found to increase between 2.68 and 3.15mmol/g, compared to 0.93mmol/g for untreated bentonite at the studied temperature and pressure. As expected, bentonite clay modified with di- and triethanolammonium cations showed lower CO2 adsorption capacities than that treated with monoethanolammonium cations, due to their low specific surface area. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Gasim G.I.,Qassim University | Hamdan H.Z.,Neelain University | Hamdan S.Z.,Neelain University | Adam I.,University of Khartoum
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

The epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is important for health planners and service providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for markers of HBV (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among hemodialysis patients at the Ahmed Gasim hemodialysis unit, Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic data and sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). Of the 353 patients enrolled in the study, HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected in 16 (4.5%) and 30 (8.5%) patients, respectively. None of the patients were co-infected with HBV and HCV. Multivariate analysis showed that duration of dialysis was significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity [OR=1.1, 95% CI=1.2-1.3; P=0.024]. No other socio-demographic or clinical characteristics (age, sex, level of education, history of surgery, and number of units of blood transfused) were significantly associated with HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositivity. The results of this study suggest that HBsAg and anti-HCV have low prevalence among hemodialysis patients in Khartoum. Longer duration of dialysis was a risk factor for anti-HCV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Abdalla Z.E.A.,Neelain University | Abdalla Z.E.A.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li B.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

Highly ordered mesoporous material (Bu4N)4H3(PW11O39)/MCM-41 with 10, 18, and 25wt.% (Bu4N)4H3(PW11O39) loadings was prepared by impregnation method in acidic media under reflux conditions, and characterized by XRD, HRTEM, Nitrogen adsorption/desorption, FT-IR, 31P CP-MAS NMR, XPS, SEM and TEM. The characterization results revealed that (Bu4N)4H3(PW11O39) was homogeneously dispersed on MCM-41 surface without effecting its mesoporous structure (even at high loadings). Nitrogen adsorption/desorption results showed that the material possessed high surface area (805-912m2/g), pore volume (0.65-0.19cm3/g) and pore diameter (2.2-3.0nm). Wide angle XRD and 31P CP-MAS NMR results revealed that (Bu4N)4H3(PW11O39) was grafted onto silica surface through W-Si-O linkage and its structural integrity was maintained during preparation method. The material was found to be highly active and reusable catalyst for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of organosulfur compounds and desulfurized almost 100% of Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and thiophene under mild reaction conditions. When the catalyst was applied for ODS of FCC cycle oil a sulfur removal of 97.2% was achieved. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Abdallah T.M.,Kassala University | Abdeen M.T.,University of Khartoum | Ahmed I.S.,Kassala University | Hamdan H.Z.,Neelain University | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: There have been few published reports on severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults in Africa. Methods. Clinical pattern/manifestations of severe P. falciparum and P. vivax (according to World Health Organization 2000 criteria) were described in adult patients admitted to Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan. Results: A total of 139 adult patients (80 males, 57.6%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (1.5) years presented with severe P. falciparum (113, 81.3%) or P. vivax (26, 18.7%) malaria. Manifestations among the 139 patients included hypotension (38, 27.3%), cerebral malaria (23, 16.5%), repeated convulsions (18, 13.0%), hypoglycaemia (15, 10.8%), hyperparasitaemia (14, 10.1%), jaundice (14, 10.1%), severe anaemia (10, 7.2%), bleeding (six, 4.3%), renal impairment (one, 0.7%) and more than one criteria (27, 19.4%). While the geometric mean of the parasite count was significantly higher in patients with severe P. vivax than with severe P. falciparum malaria (5,934.2 vs 13,906.6 asexual stage parasitaemia per μL, p = 0.013), the different disease manifestations were not significantly different between patients with P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria. Three patients (2.2%) died due to severe P. falciparum malaria. One had cerebral malaria, the second had renal impairment, jaundice and hypoglycaemia, and the third had repeated convulsions and hypotension. Conclusions: Severe malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria is an existing entity among adults in eastern Sudan. Patients with severe P. falciparum and P. vivax develop similar disease manifestations. © 2013 Abdallah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ahmed K.A.M.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Ahmed K.A.M.,Neelain University | Huang K.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Birnessite-type manganese oxide nanotubes and nanorods were synthesized via a calcination process using manganese acetate and potassium hydroxide as precursors in presence of polyethylene glycol-melamine-formaldehyde. As-prepared products were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, SA-ED, HR-TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and TGA analyses. The influences of reaction temperature and time on the morphology of manganese oxide nanocrystals were investigated. The oriented attachment-thermodynamical (OA-TD) process is suggested to describe the transition from tube to rod structure. Their capability of catalytic degradation of safranin O was compared. The results indicate that birnessite-type manganese oxide nanotube has higher catalytic activity for than nanorod crystal in aqueous solution, because it has a larger surface area. The decomposition of safranin O follows pseudo-first order kinetics and is markedly affected by pH. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ahmed Adllan A.,Neelain University | Dal Corso A.,International School for Advanced Studies
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

We test several ultrasoft pseudopotentials (US-PPs) and projector augmented-wave (PAW) data sets, calculating the bond lengths, the atomization energies and the frequencies of the vibrational stretch modes of various diatomic molecules. The US-PPs and the PAW data sets are constructed with the same recipe and using the local density approximation or the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation energies. We study the dimers H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Al 2, Si 2, P 2, S 2 and Cl 2 and several monohydrides, carbides, nitrides and oxides of boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, iron and nickel. We find that US-PPs and PAW data sets constructed with the same parameters provide almost equivalent results for the bond lengths and the vibrational stretch frequencies while, for some molecules, the PAW method is superior to the US-PP method for the calculation of the atomization energies. Our geometries and vibrational frequencies are compared with the results present in the literature and obtained by localized basis sets. It is found that the agreement is very good, with discrepancies comparable to those due to the use of different localized basis sets. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Background: Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies in asthmatic subjects (AS) demonstrate predominance of parasympathetic drive concomitant with low HRV, which is against the general belief that enhanced parasympathetic modulation improves HRV. The aim of this study was to compare patterns of HRV and cardiac autonomic modulations of AS to healthy control subjects (HS). Methods: Eighty AS and forty HS were enrolled in the study. Asthma control test and spirometry were used to discriminate uncontrolled (UA) from controlled (CA) asthmatic patients. Natural logarithmic (Ln) scale of total power (TP), very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) were used to evaluate HRV. Normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm) were used to determine sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic modulations respectively. Results: CA patients achieved significantly higher LnTP, LnLF, LnHF and HF Norm but lower LF Norm and LnLF/HF compared with UA patients (p < 0.05). Although CA patients showed increased HRV and augmented vagal modulation compared with HS, these findings were no longer significant following adjustment for mean heart rates and anti-asthma treatment. All measured HRV parameters were not significantly different in UA patients compared with the HS (p > 0.05). Conclusions: CA is associated with enhanced parasympathetic modulations and higher HRV compared with UA. However, neither CA nor UA patients had different autonomic modulations and/or HRV compared with HS. © 2015 Lutfi.

Previous studies assessing effect of ischemia on ventricular repolarization are mostly directed toward patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, similar reports on cardiac syndrome X (CSX) are scarce. Whether microvascular dysfunction of CSX and ischemia induced by CAD produce comparable effect on ventricular repolarization is unclear and deserve further studies. In the present study, ECG measures of ventricular repolarization were compared between CAD and CSX patients (40 subjects in each group). Following evaluation of sociodemographic characteristics, medical and past medical history, a resting ECG was used to assess measurements of ventricular repolarization in each patient, namely, QT interval (QT), corrected QT interval (QTc), QT dispersion (QTd), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), adjacent QT dispersion (AdQTd), QT dispersion ratio (QTdR), JT dispersion (JTd), and Corrected JT dispersion (JTcd). Results showed comparable QT intervals and QTd in CAD and CSX patients even after adjustment for the possible variations in gender, age and body mass index of the studied groups. Although JTd was increased in CSX subjects (26.6 ± 7.2 ms) compared with CAD patients (22.7 ± 6.5 ms, p = 0.019), statistical significance disappeared after correcting JT for variations in heart rate. QT and QTc were significantly below 440 ms in CAD as well as CSX patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, maximum QTd, maximum QTcd and AdQTd of CAD and CSX patients were significantly above 440 ms (p < 0.001). The means of JTd and JTcd were significantly above 22 ms and 24 ms respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) in CSX but not CAD patients (p = 0.529, p = 0.281). The present findings clearly demonstrate comparable measures of ventricular repolarization in CAD and CSX patients and consequently an equal risk of cardiac events in both groups. © 2016 Lutfi.

Background: Although several reports demonstrate the efficacy of stress echocardiography in diagnosing coronary artery disease, comparable studies on the competence of the same imaging technique at rest are limited. This study aimed to evaluate whether ventricular akinesia/hypokinesia and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 55 % at rest are useful in predicting abnormal coronary angiography. Methods: This study prospectively enrolled 100 diagnostic coronary catheterization candidates. Any routine echocardiography that the candidates had undergone before diagnostic coronary catheterization was reviewed. Patients were subclassified according to the presence and location of ventricular akinesia/hypokinesia, LVEF, and the results of diagnostic coronary catheterization. LVEF < 55 % was considered below the normal physiological limit. Abnormal coronary angiography was defined as narrowing of half or more of the caliber of at least one major coronary artery. Results: Abnormal coronary angiography was significantly associated with akinesia/hypokinesia (OR = 4.85, P = 0.002) and LVEF < 55 % (OR = 5.75, P = 0.001). Screening of akinesia/hypokinesia and LVEF < 55 % as diagnostic tools for abnormal coronary angiography achieved comparable sensitivities (87.2 % vs. 88.9 %), specificities (41.5 vs. 41.8), and diagnostic accuracies (41.5 vs. 41.8). Left ventricular anterior wall akinesia/hypokinesia achieved a higher diagnostic odds ratio (9.7), sensitivity (95 %), and negative predictive value (96.4 %) compared with other types of akinesia/hypokinesia. Conclusion: The overall diagnostic accuracy of akinesia/hypokinesia and LVEF < 55 % to predict abnormal coronary angiography was poor, probably owing to significant influences of macro- as well as micro-vascular ischemia on left ventricular function. © 2016 The Author(s).

Lutfi M.F.,Neelain University | Elhakeem R.F.,Neelain University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims: To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods: The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results: FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance again. © 2016 Lutfi, Elhakeem. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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