NED University of Engineering and Technology
Karachi, Pakistan

The NED University of Engineering and Technology, is a public research university located in the urban area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest institution of higher learning in Pakistan and is noted for its strong emphasis on higher learning in science and technology.Founded in 1922 as a technical project to provide training to civil engineers working in building the Sukkur Barrage, the university came to its modern form after being established by the British government. The university is named for its benefactor, donor, and philanthropist, Nadirshaw Eduljee Dinshaw by the government. Besides its focus on science and engineering programmes, the university also offers wide range of academic programmes in philosophy, humanities, and fine arts for undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral studies. The university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.Primarily, its financial endowment and the scientific research is directed towards the development of the engineering, management, natural, and medical science. Organized into six science faculties as well as various associated research institutions affiliated with the university in Karachi. Wikipedia.

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Khalid A.,NED University of Engineering and Technology | Junaidi H.,Smith College
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

This study assess the feasibility of photovoltaic based power plant; for this purpose best site for the location of the project is determined by comparing monthly average daily global solar radiation data of eight Pakistani cities and Quetta city is chosen for the 10 MW plant. RETScreen simulation of the power plant shows that about 23.206 GWh of electricity can be generated in a year if one axis tracking method is employed. At a total cost of $50 m, 50% debt ratio, 9% discount rate the proposed PV plant generates electricity at a rate of $0.157/kWh. The investigation shows that presently the PV based electricity is about 30.8% more expensive as compared to grid supplied electricity. Emission analysis demonstrated that the proposed PV power plant avoided carbon dioxide production by 17,938 tons/year. The analysis shows that presently the proposed PV power plant is not feasible if only economic factors are considered. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that if total installed cost of the plant is about $35 m then the cost of power from photovoltaic plant will be equal to grid supplied electric power without any subsidy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Friston K.J.,University College London | Kahan J.,University College London | Razi A.,University College London | Razi A.,NED University of Engineering and Technology | And 2 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

This paper examines intrinsic brain networks in light of recent developments in the characterisation of resting state fMRI timeseries - and simulations of neuronal fluctuations based upon the connectome. Its particular focus is on patterns or modes of distributed activity that underlie functional connectivity. We first demonstrate that the eigenmodes of functional connectivity - or covariance among regions or nodes - are the same as the eigenmodes of the underlying effective connectivity, provided we limit ourselves to symmetrical connections. This symmetry constraint is motivated by appealing to proximity graphs based upon multidimensional scaling. Crucially, the principal modes of functional connectivity correspond to the dynamically unstable modes of effective connectivity that decay slowly and show long term memory. Technically, these modes have small negative Lyapunov exponents that approach zero from below. Interestingly, the superposition of modes - whose exponents are sampled from a power law distribution - produces classical 1/. f (scale free) spectra. We conjecture that the emergence of dynamical instability - that underlies intrinsic brain networks - is inevitable in any system that is separated from external states by a Markov blanket. This conjecture appeals to a free energy formulation of nonequilibrium steady-state dynamics. The common theme that emerges from these theoretical considerations is that endogenous fluctuations are dominated by a small number of dynamically unstable modes. We use this as the basis of a dynamic causal model (DCM) of resting state fluctuations - as measured in terms of their complex cross spectra. In this model, effective connectivity is parameterised in terms of eigenmodes and their Lyapunov exponents - that can also be interpreted as locations in a multidimensional scaling space. Model inversion provides not only estimates of edges or connectivity but also the topography and dimensionality of the underlying scaling space. Here, we focus on conceptual issues with simulated fMRI data and provide an illustrative application using an empirical multi-region timeseries. © 2014.

Rafi M.M.,NED University of Engineering and Technology | Nadjai A.,University of Ulsters Fire Facility
ACI Materials Journal | Year: 2011

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars are made of innovative materials and the establishment of the fire resistance of FRP reinforced concrete (RC) is necessary for their widespread application. Experimental behaviors of carbon FRP (CFRP) and hybrid (steelCFRP) bar RC beams at elevated temperatures were investigated in this study. Data are presented from fire tests of six simply supported beams that were fabricated using normalweight concrete. The effect of varying concrete cover and reinforcing bar arrangement was studied. The beams were tested in a floor furnace and carried a service load of 40% of their ambient temperature load capacity. Nonlinear temperature distribution across the cross section was found. This caused additional beam curvature and stress that is known as eigen-stress. At temperatures beyond the glass transition temperature of the polymer resin, the FRP bars debondedfrom the concrete and behaved as tie rods if anchored at the ends. Consequently, the FRP RC beam resists thermomechanical loads by arch action. On the other hand, the thermal behaviors of hybrid beams were a combination of arch and beam action. Failure of a beam was typically initiated by reinforcing bar slip due to anchorage failure. All six beams failed in flexure, which was also the intended failure mode at ambient temperature. Hybrid bar reinforced beams were more ductile compared to FRP RC beams. The CFRP bar reinforced beams showed better strength and stiffness characteristics compared to the hybrid beams. Copyright © 2011, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved,.

Zuberi M.J.S.,Middle East Technical University | Ali S.F.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Landfills all around the world are one of the major sources that contribute towards global warming and climate change. Although landfilling should be prioritized last in the waste management hierarchy due to highest greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other waste management systems it is still very common around the world. In this study, methane emissions are estimated by applying First Order Decay model to landfills in Pakistan over the latest data available by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. Results demonstrate that nearly 14.18 Gg of methane is emitted from the landfills in Pakistan each year. By combusting this methane in the form of biogas collected from the landfills as a waste management scheme we can reduce greenhouse effect up to ∼88%. Same percentage is observed when we apply the similar analysis over the potentially improved practice. Also, Pakistan is facing severe economic crises due to continuous increasing gap between energy demand and supply. Demand is increasing exponentially while supply is observed to remain constant over the last few years due to frozen capacity in spite of having significant renewable/alternate energy resources. Current electricity shortfall has reached up to 6000 MW. Present operational landfills in Pakistan can only contribute up to ∼0.1% to cater the total deficit which does not make any significant difference but if 75% of the total waste generated today is collected and 50% of it landfilled then Pakistan has the potential to produce ∼83.17 MW of power that can contribute up to 1.4% to overcome the current power shortage. The outcomes of this paper may also be applicable to other developing countries having similar resources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen Z.C.,Concordia University at Montréal | Khan M.A.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014

With the development of a new function of computer numerical control controllers, nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) interpolation, NURBS tool path generation for sculptured surface machining is under extensive research. The common procedures of the current NURBS tool path planning methods are as follows: first, to find a group of cutter contact points on a sculptured surface; second, to calculate their corresponding cutter locations (CLs); then, to fit a NURBS tool path to the CLs within a prescribed tolerance; and finally, to inspect the tool path for possible gouge by the tool and delete the invalid path segments, if any. However, the NURBS tool path has the following problems: (a) although it passes through the discrete CLs of the theoretical CL path, the deviation along the two paths could be larger than the tolerance; (b) its parameter is not the arc length of the path; and (c) it is difficult to detect gouge along the NURBS path and to remove the invalid segments from it. Consequently, NURBS tool paths generated with the current methods of commercial computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software cannot be used to make smooth and accurate surfaces. To address these problems, this work proposes a new approach to generating arc length parameterized NURBS tool paths with high accuracy in terms of the theoretical CL paths and without gouge and interference. Two practical examples in this work clearly demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and the advantages of the generated NURBS tool paths. Therefore, this approach can be implemented into the CAD/CAM software to promote NURBS machining in industry. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.

Ahmed N.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2013

Low-income settlements in Karachi have faced acute water shortages during the past two decades. Different approaches were devised to address this situation by concerned stakeholders comprising area residents, water utility, local government officials, community groups, and formal and informal water vendors. Development of awami community-managed tanks was one such option. Evolved through cooperative action, philanthropic contributions and partial government subsidy, the awami tanks served as an interim water supply arrangement for several years. Earlier documentation and analysis of this format of supply adequately established this factor. A recent survey of the status of some low-income localities has shown that while awami tanks are largely abandoned, the existing service is far below the desired level. This paper examines the relevance of awami tanks in the present context of water supply arrangements. Various localities in Orangi in Karachi have been studied for water supply problems. On-site observations, focused group meetings with area residents and interviews with key respondents were the main components of fact-finding work. © ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

Ahmed N.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Municipal Engineer | Year: 2013

A key consideration in satisfactory performance of a water utility is proper pricing and recovery of revenue from users. Experiences from the literature reveal that level of service decreases when utilities do not recover the bills issued against services delivered. Willingness to pay, tariff structure and overall level of service are important determinants in such scenarios. In Karachi, the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board is the water utility responsible for the supply of water to consumers. The board prescribes a tariff structure for the water supply service to different categories of users, which is revised at intervals. The utility recovers only 7% of all the water service bills issued to its consumers, which leads to financial problems. A study was conducted in 2009-2010 to investigate the relationship between tariff structure and the willingness to pay by consumers. Research methods adopted for this study included 47 semi-structured interviews with residents, key officials of the utility organisation, selected mayors, consultants and community organisations. The findings and conclusions reveal that inclusion of stakeholder perspectives, capacity assessment of utility and effective liaison between users and utility are vital factors with respect to policy and procedures.

Friston K.J.,University College London | Kahan J.,University College London | Biswal B.,University College London | Razi A.,University College London | Razi A.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

This technical note introduces a dynamic causal model (DCM) for resting state fMRI time series based upon observed functional connectivity-as measured by the cross spectra among different brain regions. This DCM is based upon a deterministic model that generates predicted crossed spectra from a biophysically plausible model of coupled neuronal fluctuations in a distributed neuronal network or graph. Effectively, the resulting scheme finds the best effective connectivity among hidden neuronal states that explains the observed functional connectivity among haemodynamic responses. This is because the cross spectra contain all the information about (second order) statistical dependencies among regional dynamics. In this note, we focus on describing the model, its relationship to existing measures of directed and undirected functional connectivity and establishing its face validity using simulations. In subsequent papers, we will evaluate its construct validity in relation to stochastic DCM and its predictive validity in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. © 2013 The Authors.

Ismail A.,NED University of Engineering and Technology
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2011

This paper describes how the Technical Training Resource Centre (TTRC) was set up by a young trainee of the Orangi Pilot Project-Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI) to support better quality housing and infrastructure provision in the kaatchi abadis (informal settlements) of Karachi. The centre's work includes technical advice for constructing or extending houses and schools, training in construction for those with diplomas in civil engineering and architecture, and training for young people to undertake neighbourhood-level documentation and mapping (this is needed for planning upgrading and for negotiating with government authorities for infrastructure and tenure). The paper also discusses the difficulties that the TTRC faced, including generating sufficient funding to cover its costs. © 2011 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).

Uddin N.,NED University of Engineering and Technology | Neumann S.O.,University of Stuttgart | Weigand B.,University of Stuttgart
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2013

The complex flow field of an impinging jet is investigated to understand the dynamics of vortical structures on heat transfer. The prediction of heat transfer by a turbulent impinging jet at small jet-to-wall distances is a challenging problem in CFD. In this study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of an orthogonally impinging cold jet on a heated plate has been investigated by large eddy simulations using structured grids. The LES simulations are performed with a dynamic Smagorinsky model in the finite volume based code FASTEST, using a second-order-accurate discretisation schemes for space and time. The investigations are performed at Reynolds numbers of 13,000 and 23,000 based on jet's diameter and bulk velocity. The dimensionless jet's outlet-to-target wall distance is two. The LES data help to understand the nature of turbulence in the stagnation zone and in the developing wall jet. Simulations help in understanding the reason of occurrence of second peak in the radial distribution of Nusselt number at the target wall. The dynamics of coherent structures and their influence on the heat transfer is also explored. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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