San José, Costa Rica
San José, Costa Rica

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Mueller N.E.,Harvard University | Lennette E.T.,Virolab Inc. | Lennette E.T.,Nectandra Institute | Dupnik K.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

A role for Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) pathogenesis is supported by the detection of EBV genome in about one-third of HL cases, but is not well defined. We previously reported that an elevated prediagnosis antibody titer against EBV nuclear antigens (EBNA) was the strongest serologic predictor of subsequent HL. For the present analysis, we measured antibody levels against EBNA components EBNA1 and EBNA2 and computed their titer ratio (anti-EBNA1:2) in serum samples from HL cases and healthy siblings. We undertook this analysis to examine whether titer patterns atypical of well-resolved EBV infection, such as an anti-EBNA1:2 ratio ≤1.0, simply reflect history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), an HL risk factor, or independently predict HL risk. Participants were selected from a previous population-based case-control study according to their history of IM. We identified 55 EBV-seropositive persons with a history of IM (IM+; 33 HL cases, 22 siblings) and frequency-matched a comparison series of 173 IM history-negative, EBV-seropositive subjects on HL status, gender, age and year of blood draw (IM-; 105 cases, 58 siblings). In multivariate logistic regression models, an anti-EBNA1:2 ratio ≤1.0 was significantly more prevalent in HL cases than siblings (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 2.43, 1.05-5.65); similar associations were apparent within the IM+ and IM- groups. EBNA antibodies were not significantly associated with IM history in HL cases or siblings. These associations suggest that chronic or more severe EBV infection is a risk factor for HL, independent of IM history. Copyright © 2011 UICC.


Lennette E.T.,Nectandra Institute | Villa L.V.,Nectandra Institute | Chaves R.V.,Nectandra Institute | Villalobos M.E.,Nectandra Institute | Viquez A.U.,Nectandra Institute
Conservation Letters | Year: 2011

Nectandra Institute, a small U.S. nonprofit organization based on private philanthropy, initiated a zero (monetary) interest loan program (Eco-Loan Financing, or ELF) to qualifying rural community water management associations to buy watershed land in northern Costa Rica. Each borrowing community repays the capital and eco-interest (e.g., reforestation, regeneration of native forest on the properties, watershed restoration and management, continuing environmental education, etc). The project's effectiveness since 2007 in achieving its conservation and education objectives was due to: (1) the facility and flexibility of the negotiations between borrowers (entire communities) and lender (conservation promoter), (2) the communities' involvement and enthusiastic acceptance of the project's ecosystem conservation insured its post-loan continuance at the grassroots level, (3) the rapid reloaning of repaid capital fund, thereby amplifying the donors' investment several times, and (4) the potential for its replication and scalability elsewhere in Central America. ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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