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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Introduction: First-trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening combining maternal age, serum markers (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin) and nuchal translucency (NT) gives an 85% detection rate for a 5% false-positive rate. These results largely depend on quality assessment of biochemical markers and of NT. In routine practice, despite an ultrasound quality control organization, NT images can be considered inadequate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences for risk calculation when NT measurement is not taken into account. Material and Method: Comparison of detection and false-positive rates of first-trimester DS screening (PerkinElmer, Turku, Finland), with and without NT, based on a retrospective study of 117,126 patients including 274 trisomy 21-affected fetuses. NT was measured by more than 3,000 certified sonographers. Results: There was no significant difference in detection rates between the two strategies including or excluding NT measurement (86.7 vs. 81.8%). However, there was a significant difference in the false-positive rates (2.23 vs. 9.97%, p < 0.001). Discussion: Sonographers should be aware that removing NT from combined first-trimester screening would result in a 5-fold increase in false-positive rate to maintain the expected detection rates. This should be an incentive for maintaining quality in NT measurement. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel Copyright © 2015, S. Karger AG. All rights reserved.

Miladi L.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Mousny M.,Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc
European Spine Journal | Year: 2014

Introduction: Several different growing rod techniques have been described in the literature to treat progressive scoliosis in young children. Nevertheless, none of these techniques has shown a real superiority, and the rate of complications remains high. The purpose of this report is to describe an original fusionless method of treatment for this problem. Materials and methods: The 3 hooks-2 screws (H3S2) construct consists of a single 5.5 mm titanium rod with three hooks proximally and two monoaxial pedicle screws distally, and some extra length of rod located distally and/or proximally that can be used for future lengthenings. To date, a total of 103 H3S2 constructs have been performed in our institution. This paper reports the preliminary results on 38 patients, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Results: This procedure was found to be effective in maintaining scoliosis correction while allowing continued spinal growth and was associated with a low rate of complications. Conclusions: The H3S2 construct was found to have several advantages over the growing rod techniques as previously described in the literature. These include no need for post-operative bracing, fewer lengthening procedures and a lower rate of complications. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Sales de Gauzy J.,Children Hospital | Fitoussi F.,Robert Debre Hospital | Jouve J.-L.,Timone Children Hospital | Karger C.,Hautepierre Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research | Year: 2012

Traumatic bone defects (BD) are rare in children. There are no pediatric series in the literature on this topic. The aim of this first pediatric series was to determine the epidemiological characteristics and evaluate the results of different treatments in this entity. Material and methods: This retrospective multicenter study evaluated diaphyseal bone defects in cases in which bone reconstruction was performed. BD was either initial and associated with trauma or secondary, resulting from infected non-union. Results: The series included 27 patients (17 boys and 10 girls), mean age 11.4 years old (3-16) (20 traffic accidents). At the outset of all patients' history was an open fracture (one stage 1, seven stage 2, 11 stage 3A and seven stage 3B, 1 NR). BD involved 13 tibias, 9 femurs, three humerus, one radius and one ulna. Bone defects were initial in 20 cases and secondary in seven cases. They were less than 2. cm in two cases, between 2 and 5. cm in 9 cases, between 5 and 10. cm in 10 cases and more than 10. cm in six cases. Treatment of BD was immediate in one case and delayed in 26 cases. Techniques used included: induced membrane in 10 cases, bone transport in seven cases, bone autograft in eight cases, vascularized fibular transfer in one case, no bone reconstruction in one case. Union was obtained in 27 patients. Union was obtained within a mean 12.3 months BD (3-62). Fifteen patients presented with sequellae. Discussion: Traumatic bone defects have a better prognosis in children than in adults. The thicker, more active and richly vascularized periosteum in children is an important prognostic factor. Treatment of BD requires good initial bone stabilization. Reconstruction depends on the integrity of the periosteum. In case of an intact periosteum, bone reconstruction does not seem necessary in young children. If one part of the periosteum is intact, a simple autograft seems sufficient even with extensive bone defects. In the absence of the periosteum or especially in case of infection, the induced membrane technique seems preferable, with bone transport or a vascularized bone transfer. Level of evidence: IV: retrospective study. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Miladi L.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Journe A.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Mousny M.,Cliniques universitaires Saint Luc
European Spine Journal | Year: 2013

Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the preliminary results of an original fusionless method of treatment for progressive scoliosis in young children. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and radiographs of 23 children with progressive scoliosis who failed to respond to conservative treatment and underwent fusionless surgery using a single solid growing rod construct. All of them were ambulatory and had a followup of minimum 2 years. Sixteen patients were treated by consecutive distraction of a single intramuscular rod, and seven patients with rodding and anterior apical convex fusion. The etiology of the scoliosis included 11 idiopathic, 6 syndromic, 4 congenital, and 2 neurofibromatosis. At initial surgery, the average age was 9.3 ± 2.8 years, with a mean Cobb angle of 68° ± 32°. Six patients underwent progressive scoliosis correction in a Stagnara cast prior to surgery, and one patient with an external halo-pelvic Ilizarov device. Results Fusionless single rodding allowed to maintain scoliosis correction in all patients. At an average of 3.5 ± 0.9 years after initial surgery, the 23 patients showed a correction of 57 % in the magnitude of the original curvature. Trunk height increase was documented in all patients and ranged from 1.5 to 11.9 cm. Rod failure was found in three patients and two patients had hardware infection. Only four cases of proximal junctional kyphosis were found at last follow-up. Conclusions Preliminary results from these series of patients show that the presented fusionless single growing rod technique allows to maintain correction of progressive early onset scoliosis while permitting spinal growth, with low complication rate. With this technique, lengthening procedures are used only once in every 10 months and patients are more comfortable as no brace is needed in most cases. This technique does not require any specific spine device. The procedure is simple and efficacious as long as some guidelines are respected. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Bojan M.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Vicca S.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Lopez-Lopez V.,Necker Enfants Malades Hospital | Mogenet A.,Center Necker Cochin | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

Background and objectives: Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) has been shown to accurately predict and allow early detection of AKI, as assessed by an increase in serum creatinine in children and adults. The present study explores the accuracy of uNGAL for the prediction of severe AKI-related outcomes in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery: dialysis requirement and/or death within 30 days. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Prospective, observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, including 75 neonates and 125 infants undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between August 1, 2010, and May 31, 2011. Urine samples were collected before surgery and at median of five time points within 48 hours of bypass. Urine NGAL was quantified as absolute concentration, creatinine-normalized concentration, and absolute excretion rate, and a clusterization algorithm was applied to the individual uNGAL kinetics. The accuracy for the prediction of the outcome was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic areas, likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratios, net reclassification index, integrated reclassification improvement, and number needed to screen. Results: A total of 1176 urine samples were collected. Of all patients, 8% required dialysis and 4% died. Three clusters of uNGAL kinetics were identified, including patients with significantly different outcomes. The uNGAL level peaked between 1 and 3 hours of bypass and remained high in half of all patients who required dialysis or died. The uNGAL levels measured within 24 hours of bypass accurately predicted the outcome and performed best after normalization to creatinine, with varying cutoffs according to the time elapsed since bypass. The number needed to screen to correctly identify the risk of dialysis or death in one patient varied between 1.5 and 2.6 within 12 hours of bypass. Conclusions: uNGAL is a valuable predictive tool of dialysis requirement and death in neonates and infants with AKI after cardiac surgery. © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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