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Nechansky H.,Nechansky Engineering Efficiency
International Journal of General Systems | Year: 2011

A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Nechansky H.,Nechansky Engineering Efficiency
Kybernetes | Year: 2016

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how individual acts of goal-setting of two persons or systems A and B determine, which modes of coexistence become possible in an interaction of the two. Design/methodology/approach – Some person or system A can approach another person or system B with an inclination to realize one of four goal-setting processes: first, A sets goals for B; second, A sets no own goals; third, A pursues own goals alone; and fourth, A and B develop mutual goals. And an interaction of A and B can lead to just four modes of coexistence: first, conflict – A and B fight; second, hierarchy – A submits to B; third, independence in niches – A and B do not interact; and fourth, cooperation – A and B work together. Findings – Placing the inclinations of A and B to realize one of the four goal-setting processes in a 4×4 matrix leads to the interaction matrix. It shows that individual goal-setting processes predetermine and limit the available modes of coexistence, i.e. cause certain patterns of interactions. Practical implications – The interaction matrix can be applied to all interactions between persons, groups and social units generally. Originality/value – The paper introduces a theoretical framework covering all options of goal-orientated behavior. It explains the interrelation between individual goal-setting of persons and systems and the resulting behavioral options in interactions. It is applicable to all behavioral sciences. © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Nechansky H.,Nechansky Engineering Efficiency
Kybernetes | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main differences in the cybernetic structures necessary for elementary anticipation, understood as anticipation of the repetition of one known pattern, and complex anticipation, understood as anticipation of the repetition of known sequences of patterns. Design/methodology/approach: A functional cybernetic approach is used to develop the necessary additions to an elementary anticipatory system, so that it can provide standards for anticipated sequences containing seven single patterns or "chunks". Findings: A subsystem for the anticipation of sequences is developed that is able to: identify the beginning of known sequences; search for different known sequences containing that beginning; and decide to use later patterns of such a sequence as standards for anticipated patterns. Deciding to actually use such patterns for anticipation requires an additional subsystem to switch between the feedback pattern recognition and the feedforward anticipation mode. Practical implications: The paper shows how complex anticipation can be developed from elementary forms by adding highly parallel structures that apply the same underlying principles; and it emphasizes epistemological demands for the structure and the data organization that have to be fulfilled, so that anticipation of the repetition of sequences becomes possible. Originality/value: The paper illustrates the complexity of the anticipation of sequences and it provides the base to analyze more complex forms of specifically human thinking. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Nechansky H.,Nechansky Engineering Efficiency
Kybernetes | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how elementary anticipation, understood as anticipation of the repetition of one known pattern, can emerge out of sequence learning and how it can contribute to the behavioral options of goal-oriented systems. Design/methodology/approach: A functional approach is used to develop the necessary cybernetic structures of a subsystem for sequence learning that can additionally provide standards of anticipated patterns for future pattern matching. Based on that it is analyzed, how a goal-oriented system can use the information about the actual occurrence of an anticipated pattern. Findings: A subsystem for elementary anticipation of single patterns builds on sequence learning and requires additionally a structure: first, to unequivocally identify the beginning of known sequences just from their first patterns; and second, to decide to use a latter pattern of such a sequence as standard for an anticipated pattern. Deciding to actually use such a pattern for anticipation requires an additional subsystem to switch between the feedback pattern recognition mode and feedforward. Then the occurrence of such an anticipated pattern allows immediate recognition and action. Practical implications: The paper shows a necessary evolution of cybernetic structures from pattern recognition via sequence learning to anticipation; and it shows, too, a necessary evolution in the cognitive development of individual systems. In the simple anticipatory structures analyzed here, only known patterns, that are part of a known sequence, can become anticipated patterns. Originality/value: The paper places elementary anticipation of single patterns in an evolutionary development based on pattern recognition and sequence learning. It provides the base to analyze more complex forms of anticipation. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Nechansky H.,Nechansky Engineering Efficiency
International Journal of General Systems | Year: 2013

The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beers viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beers model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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