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Lincoln, NE, United States

Nebraska Wesleyan University is a private, coeducational university located in Lincoln, Nebraska, United States. It was founded in 1887 by Nebraska Methodists. As of 2007, it has 1,600 full-time students and 300 faculty and staff. The school teaches in the tradition of a liberal arts college education. Nebraska Wesleyan was ranked the #1 liberal arts college in Nebraska by U.S. News and World Report in 2002. In 2009, Forbes ranked it 84th of America's Best Colleges. It remains affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Wikipedia.

Tecklenburg-Lund S.,Indiana University Bloomington | Tecklenburg-Lund S.,Nebraska Wesleyan University | Mickleborough T.D.,Indiana University Bloomington | Turner L.A.,Indiana University Bloomington | And 3 more authors.

Background: Both fish oil and montelukast have been shown to reduce the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fish oil and montelukast, alone and in combination, on airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction induced by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) in asthmatics. Methods: In this model of EIB, twenty asthmatic subjects with documented hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) entered a randomized double-blind trial. All subjects entered on their usual diet (pre-treatment, n = 20) and then were randomly assigned to receive either one active 10 mg montelukast tablet and 10 placebo fish oil capsules (n = 10) or one placebo montelukast tablet and 10 active fish oil capsules totaling 3.2 g EPA and 2.0 g DHA (n = 10) taken daily for 3-wk. Thereafter, all subjects (combination treatment; n = 20) underwent another 3-wk treatment period consisting of a 10 mg active montelukast tablet or 10 active fish oil capsules taken daily. Results: While HIB was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) by montelukast, fish oil and combination treatment compared to pre-treatment, there was no significant difference (p>0.017) between treatment groups; percent fall in forced expiratory volume in 1-sec was -18.4±2.1%, -9.3±2.8%, -11.6±2.8% and -10.8±1.7% on usual diet (pre-treatment), fish oil, montelukast and combination treatment respectively. All three treatments were associated with a significant reduction (p<0.05) in FENO, exhaled breathe condensate pH and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, while the fish oil and combination treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) urinary 9α, 11β-prostaglandin F2 after EVH compared to the usual diet; however, there was no significant difference (p>0.017) in these biomarkers between treatments. Conclusion: While fish oil and montelukast are both effective in attenuating airway inflammation and HIB, combining fish oil with montelukast did not confer a greater protective effect than either intervention alone. Fish oil supplementation should be considered as an alternative treatment for EIB. © 2010 Tecklenburg-Lund et al. Source

Turner L.A.,Indiana University | Turner L.A.,Northumbria University | Mickleborough T.D.,Indiana University | McConnell A.K.,Brunel University | And 3 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle fatigue, and the perception of dyspnea in asthmatic individuals. Methods: Using a matched double-blind placebo-controlled design, 15 clinically diagnosed asthmatic individuals underwent either 6 wk of IMT (n = 7) consisting of 30 breaths twice daily at 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) or sham-IMT (placebo; PLA, n = 8) consisting of 60 breaths daily at 15% PImax. Time to the limit of exercise tolerance (Tlim) was assessed using constant-power output (70% peak power) cycle ergometry. Inspiratory muscle fatigue was determined by comparing the pre-to postexercise reduction in PImax. Dyspnea during the Tlim test was evaluated at 2-min intervals using the Borg CR-10 scale. Results: There were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in Tlim, inspiratory muscle fatigue, or perception of dyspnea in the PLA group after the intervention. In contrast, in the IMT group, PImax increased by 28%, and Tlim increased by 16% (P < 0.05). Dyspnea during exercise was also reduced significantly by 16% (P < 0.05). The exercise-induced fall in PImax was reduced from 10% before IMT to 6% after IMT (P < 0.05), despite the longer Tlim. Pulmonary function remained unchanged in both the IMT and PLA groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that IMT attenuates inspiratory muscle fatigue, reduces the perception of dyspnea, and increases exercise tolerance. These findings suggest that IMT may be a helpful adjunct to asthma management that has the potential to improve participation and adherence to exercise training in this group. However, the perception of breathlessness is also an important signal of bronchoconstriction, and thus, caution should be exercised if this symptom is abnormally low. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

Clancy K.A.,Nebraska Wesleyan University | Clancy B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Critical Studies in Media Communication

This paper explores the international controversy over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We argue that the uncommonly high levels of opposition to genetically modified food in both the United States and in Europe can be attributed to the overwhelming success of the online visual campaign against GMOs. By exploiting the unique characteristics of the internet to create memetic images that can travel freely across linguistic and cultural borders, opponents of the technology have been able to refute rationalist claims about the safety of GMOs. In response to the single coherent narrative of scientific certainty, a diffuse set of challenges emerges. The risk of genetic engineering holds within it the potential for catastrophe, leaving the industries that produce and manufacture the technology in a perpetual state of crisis. Instead of a unified narrative of scientific certainty, each challenge presents a multiplicity of diffuse narratives that unsettle the public’s understanding of the risk presented by GMOs. We aim to augment traditional understandings of the way that publics may interact with the “public screen” by explicating one way in which dominance of the visual in mediated political discourse may privilege non-rational political decision making. © 2016 National Communication Association Source

Quaranta D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Krans T.,Nebraska Wesleyan University | Santo C.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Santo C.E.,University of Coimbra | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC 2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Stern S.A.,Southwest Research Institute | Cunningham N.J.,Nebraska Wesleyan University | Hain M.J.,Nebraska Wesleyan University | Spencer J.R.,Southwest Research Institute | Shinn A.,Southwest Research Institute
Astronomical Journal

We have observed the mid-UV spectra of both Pluto and its large satellite, Charon, at two rotational epochs using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) in 2010. These are the first HST/COS measurements of Pluto and Charon. Here we describe the observations and our reduction of them, and present the albedo spectra, average mid-UV albedos, and albedo slopes we derive from these data. These data reveal evidence for a strong absorption feature in the mid-UV spectrum of Pluto; evidence for temporal change in Pluto's spectrum since the 1990s is reported, and indirect evidence for a near-UV spectral absorption on Charon is also reported. Source

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