nduja Hospital and Medical Research Center

Mumbai, India

nduja Hospital and Medical Research Center

Mumbai, India
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Hajela N.,Yakult India Microbiota and Probiotic Science Foundation | Ramakrishna B.S.,SRM University | Nair G.B.,Translational Health Science and Technology Institute | Abraham P.,nduja Hospital and Medical Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

New insights from a rapidly developing field of research have ushered in a new era of understanding of the complexity of host-microbe interactions within the human body. The paradigm shift from culturing to metagenomics has provided an insight into the complex diversity of the microbial species that we harbor, revealing the fact that we are in fact more microbes than human cells. The largest consortium of these microbes resides in the gut and is called the gut microbiota. This new science has expanded the ability to document shifts in microbial populations to an unparalleled degree. It is now understood that signals from the microbiota provide trophic, nutritional, metabolic, and protective effects for the development and maintenance of the host digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine system. Evidence linking changes in the gut microbiota to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and celiac disease have begun to emerge recently. Probiotics act through diverse mechanisms positively affecting the composition and/or function of the commensal microbiota and alter host immunological responses. Well-controlled intervention trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence for the benefit of probiotics in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal as well as extraintestinal disorders. © 2015, Indian Society of Gastroenterology.


PubMed | nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center, San Diego State University, Stellenbosch University, Institute of Phthisiopneumology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy | Year: 2016

Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa. We determined the frequencies of each mutation among drug-resistant and -susceptible specimens based on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results and examined mutation distributions by country. The most common mutation among isoniazid-resistant (INH(r)) specimens was the katG 315ACC mutation (87%). However, in the Eastern Cape, INH(r) specimens had a lower frequency of katG mutations (44%) and higher frequencies of inhA (47%) and ahpC (10%) promoter mutations. The most common mutation among rifampin-resistant (RIF(r)) specimens was the rpoB 531TTG mutation (80%). The mutation was common in RIF(r) specimens in Mumbai (83%) and Moldova (84%) but not the Eastern Cape (17%), where the 516GTC mutation appeared more frequently (57%). The most common mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant specimens was the gyrA 94GGC mutation (44%). The rrs 1401G mutation was found in 84%, 84%, and 50% of amikacin-resistant, capreomycin-resistant, and kanamycin (KAN)-resistant (KAN(r)) specimens, respectively. The eis promoter mutation -12T was found in 26% of KAN(r) and 4% of KAN-susceptible (KAN(s)) specimens. Inclusion of the ahpC and eis promoter gene regions was critical for optimal test sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance in the Eastern Cape and KAN resistance in Moldova. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02170441.).


Ajbani K.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Nikam C.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Kazi M.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Gray C.,Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics FIND | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The emergence of resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major setback to the global control of the disease as the treatment of such resistance is complex and expensive. Use of direct detection of mutations by molecular methods could facilitate rapid diagnosis of resistance to offset diagnostic delays. We evaluated the performance of the Genotype MTBDRsl (Hain Life Sciences) for the detection of second line resistant TB directly from stored smear positive sputum sediments. Methodology/Principal Findings: The assay showed a diverse range of sensitivity and specificity, 91.26% [95% CI, 84-96] and 95.5% [95% CI, 87-99] for FQ (PPV ~97% & NPV ~ 87.67%), 56.19% [95%CI, 46-66] and 81% [95%CI, 66-91] for EMB (PPV ~ 88.06% & NPV ~ 43.21%) and 100% for SLD. Diagnostic accuracy for FQ, SLD and EMB was 94%, 100% and 63.51%, respectively. 1.17% (2/170) were heteroresistance strains, where the heteroresistance was linked to rrs gene. A varying rate of validity was observed 100% (170/170) for FQ, 94.11% (160/170) for EMB, 88.23% (150/170) for SLD. Conclusions/Significance: Genotype MTBDRsl is simple, rapid, economical assay that can be used to detect commonly known resistance associated with Fluoroquinolone, second line injectable drugs and ethambutol. The assay detects the targeted resistance in less time as compared to phenotypic DST. But due to low NPV to FQ (88%) and EMB (43.21%), the assay results must be interpreted in coordination with the phenotypic DST. © 2012 Ajbani et al.


Minion J.,McGill University | Minion J.,Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit | Minion J.,University of Alberta | Shenai S.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy is being scaled up for tuberculosis control, but fading of auramine-stained slides could compromise external quality assurance. We stored auramine-stained slides and reexamined them over time. Slides stored in all environments faded quickly, with significant changes in the proportion of positive slides in as little as 1 week. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Nikam C.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Jagannath M.,bigtecLabs | Narayanan M.M.,bigtecLabs | Ramanabhiraman V.,bigtecLabs | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Control of the global Tuberculosis (TB) burden is hindered by the lack of a simple and effective diagnostic test that can be utilized in resource-limited settings. Methods: We evaluated the performance of Truenat MTB™, a chip-based nucleic acid amplification test in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical sputum specimens from 226 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The test involved sputum processing using Trueprep-MAG™ (nanoparticle-based protocol run on a battery-operated device) and real-time PCR performed on the Truelab Uno™ analyzer (handheld, battery-operated thermal cycler). Specimens were also examined for presence of MTB using smear microscopy, liquid culture and an in-house nested PCR protocol. Results were assessed in comparison to a composite reference standard (CRS) consisting of smear and culture results, clinical treatment and follow-up, and radiology findings. Results: Based on the CRS, 191 patients had "Clinical-TB" (Definite and Probable-TB). Of which 154 patients are already on treatment, and 37 were treatment naïve cases. Remaining 35 were confirmed "Non-TB" cases which are treatment naïve cases. The Truenat MTB test was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 91.1% (CI: 86.1-94.7) and 100% (CI: 90.0-100) respectively, in comparison to 90.58% (CI: 85.5-94.3) and 91.43% (CI: 76.9-98.2) respectively for the in-house nested PCR protocol. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows that the Truenat MTB test allows detection of TB in approximately one hour and can be utilized in near-care settings to provide quick and accurate diagnosis. © 2013 Nikam et al.


Samant P.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Ramugade S.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

We report a case series of post-operative endophthalmitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 8 patients operated for cataract, were referred to our facility with acute onset of decreased vision 1-2 days following surgery. All patients had clinical evidence of acute exogenous endophthalmitis with severe anterior chamber exudative reaction. Ocular samples (aqueous aspirate and vitreous tap) for microbiology were taken from all eyes. Microbiology from all revealed P. aeruginosa which was resistant to all antibiotics except colistin. With prompt and accurate microbiological support it was possible to control the infection in all the eyes with the use of colistin intravitreally and intravenously which to the best of our knowledge, has been never reported. Intravitreal injection of colistin could be an option effective in the management of multi-drug-resistant endophthalmitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria.


Bhalerao-Gandhi A.,nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center | Chhabra P.,Sanofi S.A. | Arya S.,Sanofi S.A. | Simmerman J.M.,Sanofi S.A.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2015

Maternal influenza infection is known to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and young children. Many professional healthcare bodies including the World Health Organization (WHO) have identified pregnant women as a priority risk group for receipt of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However influenza prevention in this group is not yet a public health priority in India. This literature review was undertaken to examine the Indian studies of influenza among pregnant women. Eight Indian studies describing influenza burden and/or outcomes among pregnant women with influenza were identified. In most studies, influenza A (pH1N1) was associated with increased maternal mortality (25-75%), greater disease severity, and adverse fetal outcomes as compared to nonpregnant women. Surveillance for seasonal influenza infections along with higher quality prospective studies among pregnant women is needed to quantify disease burden, improve awareness among antenatal care providers, and formulate antenatal influenza vaccine policies. © 2015 Ashwini Bhalerao-Gandhi et al.


PubMed | nduja Hospital and Medical Research Center and University of California at San Diego
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2016

Although line-probe assays (LPAs) are promising, little research has been conducted to elucidate the true nature of indeterminate LPA results or assess the ability of these assays to perform on a wide range of clinical samples.To evaluate the performance of the commercially available GenoType() MTBDRplus LPA against conventional BACTEC MGIT 960 culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) among 308 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 32 extra-pulmonary TB samples.Invalid LPA results (defined as those with a missing Mycobacterium tuberculosis identification band) were obtained for 18 PTB samples, which were excluded from further analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTBDRplus assay for multidrug-resistant TB, based upon the results obtained for the remaining 322 samples, was respectively 95.2% and 95.1%. Of 290 PTB samples, 40 (13.7%) were indeterminate on LPA (defined as the absence of both wild-type and corresponding mutation bands) for isoniazid (INH) and/or rifampicin (RMP), and were further evaluated by pyrosequencing (PSQ). Contrary to standard LPA interpretation, INH and RMP susceptibility were confirmed by both DST and PSQ in respectively 7.5% (3/40) and 27.5% (11/40) of indeterminate samples.PSQ was found to be a valuable and rapid technique to resolve discrepancies in LPA test results that were not interpretable.


PubMed | nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology | Year: 2015

We report a case series of post-operative endophthalmitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 8 patients operated for cataract, were referred to our facility with acute onset of decreased vision 1-2 days following surgery. All patients had clinical evidence of acute exogenous endophthalmitis with severe anterior chamber exudative reaction. Ocular samples (aqueous aspirate and vitreous tap) for microbiology were taken from all eyes. Microbiology from all revealed P. aeruginosa which was resistant to all antibiotics except colistin. With prompt and accurate microbiological support it was possible to control the infection in all the eyes with the use of colistin intravitreally and intravenously which to the best of our knowledge, has been never reported. Intravitreal injection of colistin could be an option effective in the management of multi-drug-resistant endophthalmitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria.


PubMed | nduja Hospital And Medical Research Center and Sanofi S.A.
Type: | Journal: Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2015

Maternal influenza infection is known to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and young children. Many professional healthcare bodies including the World Health Organization (WHO) have identified pregnant women as a priority risk group for receipt of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However influenza prevention in this group is not yet a public health priority in India. This literature review was undertaken to examine the Indian studies of influenza among pregnant women. Eight Indian studies describing influenza burden and/or outcomes among pregnant women with influenza were identified. In most studies, influenza A (pH1N1) was associated with increased maternal mortality (25-75%), greater disease severity, and adverse fetal outcomes as compared to nonpregnant women. Surveillance for seasonal influenza infections along with higher quality prospective studies among pregnant women is needed to quantify disease burden, improve awareness among antenatal care providers, and formulate antenatal influenza vaccine policies.

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