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Li W.,Xian Jiaotong University | Ma Q.,Xian Jiaotong University | Liu J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Han L.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2012

As a vital step in the progression of cancer, metastasis poses the largest problem in cancer treatment and is the main cause of death of cancer patients. In pancreatic cancer, almost 80% of patients have locally deteriorated or metastatic disease and thus are not appropriate for resection at the time of diagnosis. Due to the high rate of incidence and mortality, it is crucial to study the molecular mechanisms of metastasis to clarify therapeutic targets to hinder the spread of cancer. Diabetes mellitus has long been considered a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer. In this review, we comprehensively describe the role of hyperglycemia in governing critical steps of the metastatic process. In particular, we focus on the hyperglycemia-dependent aspects of the Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and vascular dysfunction. Furthermore, we discuss how hyperglycemia-related production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in these two processes. A deep understanding of metastasis mechanisms will identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.


Mc Phee K.E.,NDSU | Inglis D.A.,Mount Vernon Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center | Gundersen B.,Mount Vernon Northwestern Washington Research and Extension Center | Coyne C.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

With 3 figures and 4 tables Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi (Fop) exists in pea production regions worldwide and causes a vascular wilt resulting in significant crop losses. Four races of Fop have been identified, and resistance to each was reportedly conferred by an individual single dominant gene. Fnw confers resistance to Fop race 2, which can be a serious pathogen for both green and dry pea production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objectives of this research were to (i) place Fnw on the Pisum genetic map, (ii) detect additional genetic factors associated with resistance to race 2 and (iii) identify closely linked markers for use in pea breeding A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 187 F 7-derived lines from the cross 'Shawnee'/'Bohatyr' was developed by single-seed decent. All 187 RILs, the parents and one set of race 2 pea differential entries were inoculated with Fop race 2 under controlled conditions in three experiments, each with two or three replications per entry. Disease reactions were recorded as percentage diseased plants 10-14days postinoculation or at regular intervals through flowering or early pod fill. Data for progressive wilting over time, typical of Fop race 2, were used to calculate area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) values. Data for percentage diseased plants placed the putative single gene Fnw on Pisum sativum linkage group IV, with LOD scores ranging from 40.0 to 65.6 and minor loci on LG III (LOD 3.97 and 4.60). AUDPC values allowed for the detection of additional QTL on linkage group III with LOD scores of 3.97 and 4.60. The presence of recombinants in the population indicated that complementary genes were contributed by each parent, both of which showed intermediate reaction to Fop race 2. Results of this research provide a basis for marker-assisted selection of the major Fnw loci in both green and dry pea breeding programmes, but additional research is necessary to fully characterize the complementary gene action governing resistance of the two minor loci identified. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Balasubramanian S.,Louisiana State University | Amamcharla J.,South Dakota State University | Panigrahi S.,Purdue University | Logue C.M.,North Dakota State University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

Two different electronic nose systems (metal oxide and conducting polymer based) were used to identify Salmonella typhimurium contaminated beef strip loin samples (stored at two temperatures). The sensors present in the two systems were ranked based on their Fisher criteria of ranking to evaluate their importance in discriminant analysis. The most informative sensors were then used to develop linear discriminant analysis and quadratic discriminant analysis-based classification models. Further, sensor signals collected from both the sensor systems were combined to improve the classification accuracies. The developed models classified meat samples based on the Salmonella population into "No Salmonella" (microbial counts < 0. 7 log 10 cfu/g) and "Salmonella inoculated" (microbial counts ≥ 0. 7 log 10 cfu/g). The performances of the developed models were validated using leave-1-out cross-validation. Classification accuracies of 80% and above were observed for the samples stored at 10 °C using the sensor fusion approach. However, the classification accuracies were relatively low for the meat samples stored at 4 °C when compared to the samples stored at 10 °C. The results indicate that the electronic nose systems could be effectively used as a first stage screening device to identify the meat samples contaminated with S. typhimurium. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Amamcharla J.K.,South Dakota State University | Panigrahi S.,Purdue University | Logue C.M.,NDSU | Marchello M.,NDSU | Sherwood J.S.,NDSU
Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety | Year: 2010

Detection of beef contamination from harmful pathogens will be helpful in protecting the consumer safety and controlling the outbreaks. In this paper, the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was investigated to discriminate the Salmonella contaminated packed beef. A suitable headspace sampling system was designed and used to collect the headspace volatiles from the packed meat to the FTIR gas cell. Spectral signatures of headspace volatiles of meat packages were used to classify the packed meat samples as contaminated or not. FTIR spectrum was divided into several regions in order to reduce the dimensionality as well as to select the regions based on the absorbance properties of various volatiles present in headspace of meat package. Principal component analysis was performed on the entire spectrum (4000-500 cm -1) as well as on the selected sub-regions of entire spectrum. Two statistical classification techniques (linear and quadratic discriminate analysis) were used to develop classification models. The statistical models were validated using bootstrap cross validation technique. The total average classification accuracies were evaluated in terms of coefficient of variance (% CV). Based on the mean of total average classification accuracies and its % CV calculated from five similarly conducted experiments, it was found that the statistical models developed on a part of the spectra (500-850 cm -1) and full spectra (4000-500 cm -1) can be used as potential classification models for non-destructive discrimination of Salmonella contaminated packed beef samples from uncontaminated ones. These results need to be further validated on dataset with larger sample size. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Xu J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Li W.,Xian Jiaotong University | Ma J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Liu J.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 4 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Various epidemiological studies have demonstrated that vitamin D may play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Vitamin D is one of the most pivotal nutraceuticals whose active metabolite, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), possesses anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and pro-differentiating capabilities. Accumulating evidence indicates that the potential benefits of using vitamin D in cancer are not only anti-cancer cell proliferation which is linked with its anti-inflammatory effects, including the suppression of prostaglandin metabolism and inhibition of NF-κB signaling, but also suppressing tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Here, we present a systematic summary of the effects of vitamin D in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer, especially anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic actions. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

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