Karnāl, India
Karnāl, India

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Singh P.,NDRI | Sarkar S.K.,IASRI
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

Information regarding the fertility index in relation to sperm attributes, which helps in the selection of future breeding bulls are meager in buffaloes. The present study was conducted to measure the differences in motility characteristics, head biometry, acrosome, plasma membrane and DNA of cryopreserved semen of fertile and subfertile buffalo bulls. The fertility of bulls was classified on the basis of conception rates (CR), where bulls having CR 28-35% and >55% were considered as sub-fertile and fertile bulls respectively. Computer assisted semen analyzer was used for motility and viability studies. Total motility, average path velocity (VAP), straight linear velocity (VSL) and curvilinear velocity (VCL) of sperm for fertile bulls were significantly higher than sub-fertile bulls. Significant differences were found in the length and width of sperm head between the 2 groups. The percentage of intactness of sperm acrosome of fertile bulls was significantly higher than sub-fertile bulls. The percentage of apoptotic sperm differed significantly between fertile and sub-fertile bulls. The sperm DNA integrity of fertile and sub-fertile bulls was not significantly different. In conclusion, the total motility, VAP, VCL, VSL, length and width of sperm head, acrosome integrity and percentage of apoptotic sperm, are useful for evaluating bulls' semen quality to reduce the risk of using semen of poor-fertility bulls in AI programme.

PubMed | Deppartment of Veterinary Anatomy, Ivri, G.B.P.U.A & T, Ph.D. Scholar and Ndri
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of veterinary research | Year: 2016

The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P<0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The more you drink, the greater your risk of prostate cancer: Study Alcohol is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer and at least seven types of cancers of the digestive system. It's also suggested that alcohol may increase the risk of cancers of the skin, pancreas and prostate. But some unresolved questions still remain in the underlying science. A new collaborative study done by researchers at the Centre for Addictions Research of BC (CARBC) at the University of Victoria and Australia's National Drug Research Institute (NDRI) at Curtin University provides new evidence of a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. The article appears in BMC Cancer, a peer-reviewed online journal. Part of the problem with most previous studies comes from what scientists call "abstainer bias." This is the common practice of lumping together former drinkers -- including people who may have previously drank heavily, but quit or cut down due to failing health -- with those who have abstained from drinking alcohol for their whole lives. This practice can disguise the association between alcohol intake and health problems like prostate cancer by making drinkers "look good" in comparison with a group containing unhealthy former drinkers. The research team identified all previously published studies on alcohol and prostate cancer (340) and found 27 that attempted to measure the risk at different levels of consumption. Controlling for abstainer bias in their analysis of all 27 studies, they found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between amount of alcohol consumed and risk of prostate cancer among current drinkers. In other words, the more you drink, the greater your risk of prostate cancer. Even at low-volume drinking (up to two drinks per day), men had an eight per cent greater risk of prostate cancer compared to lifetime abstainers. But when the researchers examined only those six studies that were originally free of abstainer bias, the risk for low volume drinkers rose to 23 per cent. Given the high prevalence of prostate cancer, especially in the developed world, the public health implications of these fi¬ndings are signifi¬cant. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in Canada, Australia and Britain, and is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in men worldwide. "This new study contributes to the strengthening evidence that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer. Alcohol's contribution to prostate cancer will need to be factored in to future estimates of the global burden of disease," said UVic's CARBC director and co-author Dr. Tim Stockwell. This month is "Movember," a campaign that originated in Australia to raise funds and awareness of prostate and testicular cancer and men's health in general. The week of Nov.16 - 22 is National Alcohol Awareness Week in the UK and National Addictions Awareness Week in Canada. "These findings highlight the need for better methods in research on alcohol and health," says report co-author Dr. Tanya Chikritzhs. "Past and future studies that demonstrate protection from disease due to low-level drinking should be treated with caution." Study co-authors include Dr. Jinhui Zhao and Audra Roemer (MSc research assistant) from the University of Victoria. Tim Stockwell Director, Centre for Addictions Research of BC, University of Victoria 250-472-5445 timstock@uvic.ca

Sacks S.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc. | Sacks J.Y.,NDRI
Therapeutic Communities | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the development of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) as an integrated approach to the treatment of co-occurring disorders. Four research studies are presented, each of which examined the effectiveness of the MTC within a particular population and a particular setting; all 902 volunteer subjects had mental disorders (most of these were serious disorders) co-occurring with substance use disorders, and all four studies were undertaken by the same investigative team. Significantly better outcomes were observed for the MTC group in every study, but the measures and domains in which differences were detected varied from study to study. A quantitative synthesis (using meta-analysis) detected significant improvements in outcomes for the MTC group in five of six outcome domains (substance use, mental health, crime, employment and housing); no significant differences were detected in HIV-risk. The review of research concludes with brief summaries of preliminary findings from two current studies. The paper then transitions to a closing discussion of staff training, aftercare services, and future directions for research related to the MTC. The substantial base of research supporting the efficacy of the MTC approach for persons with cooccurring disorders that has accumulated should encourage programme and policy officials to consider using MTC programmes for populations with co-occurring disorders. © The Author(s).

PubMed | Texas Christian University, University of Kentucky, Temple University, NDRI and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AIDS and behavior | Year: 2016

With numerous HIV service gaps in prisons and jails, there has been little research on HIV stigma attitudes among correctional staff. Such attitudes may undermine HIV services for inmates at risk of or infected with HIV. This HIV stigma attitudes survey among 218 correctional staff in 32 US facilities (1) provides an overview of staffs stigma attitudes, (2) reports psychometric analyses of domains in Earnshaw and Chaudoirs HIV Stigma Framework (HSF), and (3) explores differences in stigma attitudes among different staff types. Overall, correctional and medical staff expressed non stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS, but perceived that stigma and discrimination exist in others. Factor analyses revealed a three factor structure capturing two mechanisms of the HSF (prejudice, discrimination). Few factor score differences were found by staff type or setting. Implications for correctional HIV services and future research on HIV stigma attitudes are discussed.

Kapila R.,NDRI | Kapila S.,NDRI | Kapasiya M.,NDRI | Pandey D.,NDRI | And 2 more authors.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins | Year: 2012

Six strains of lactobacilli belonging to three species (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) were evaluated for probiotic attributes viz. acid tolerance, bile tolerance and cell surface hydrophobicity. All the six strains exhibited probiotic attributes with considerable degree of variation. Three Lactobacillus strains selected on the basis of probiotic attributes were used for preparing three different fermented milks. In order to evaluate the effect of feeding these probiotic fermented milks on macrophage cell function, an in-vivo trial was conducted in mice for a period of 2, 5 and 8 days. The control group of mice was fed with skim milk. The phagocytic activity of macrophages increased significantly (P < 0. 05) on feeding fermented milk prepared using L. acidophilus,L. casei and L. helveticus as compared to milk group (control) on 2nd, 5th and 8th day of feeding, respectively. Likewise, the release of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase from peritoneal macrophages increased significantly (P < 0. 05) on 2nd, 5th and 8th day of feeding as compared to their respective control group (milk). The results thus depict that feeding of probiotic fermented milk enhances phagocytic activity of the macrophages. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Clatts M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Giang L.M.,Center for Research and Training on | Goldsamt L.,NDRI | Colon-Lopez V.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2010

Background: Surveillance studies have noted intravenous injection of promethazine hydrochloride (PHC) among populations that use heroin in south and southeast Asia. However, little is known about onset and initiation of PHC use and its relationship to habitual heroin use. Methods: As part of a longitudinal study of heroin initiation, a sample of 179 new heroin users, aged 15-27 years, were interviewed between October 2005 and December 2006 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to characterize age at promethazine initiation and its association with relevant covariates. Results: 76% reported lifetime use of PHC. Mean age of PHC initiation was 21.3 years, on average 6 months following onset of heroin injection. In multivariate analysis, lifetime use of diazepam [HR = 1.69 (1.17, 2.44); p-value = .01] and injecting heroin for more than 1.58 years [HR = 1.46 (1.04, 2.06); p-value = .03] were associated with PHC initiation. Conclusion: Intravenous injection of PHC is a relatively common practice among young injection heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam who use it on a situational basis to substitute for heroin (when heroin is not available or when heroin is too costly) or to augment the effects of an inadequate heroin dosing (delaying onset of heroin withdraw). Existing drug prevention strategies in Vietnam are focused primarily on heroin and most new heroin users initiate PHC use without prior knowledge of its high risk for serious vein damage. Future research is needed on the PHC use among heroin users, including long-term medical consequences of PHC exposure. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Kumar S.,NDRI | Kanawjia S.K.,NDRI | Khatkar S.,NDRI
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

PubMed | West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences and NDRI
Type: | Journal: ISRN molecular biology | Year: 2016

Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has an important pattern recognition receptor that recognizes endotoxins associated with gram negative bacterial infections. The present investigation was carried out to study nucleotide sequencing and SNP detection by PCR-RFLP analysis of the TLR-4 gene in Murrah buffalo. Genomic DNA was isolated from 102 lactating Murrah buffalo from NDRI herd. The amplified PCR fragments of TLR-4 comprised of exon 1, exon 2, exon 3.1, and exon 3.2 were examined to RFLP. PCR products were obtained with sizes of 165, 300, 478, and 409bp. TLR-4 gene of investigated Murrah buffaloes was highly polymorphic with AA, AB, and BB genotypes as revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis using Dra I, Hae III, and Hinf I REs. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplified fragment of TLR-4 gene of Murrah buffalo was done. Twelve SNPs were identified. Six SNPs were nonsynonymous resulting in change in amino acids. Murrah is an indigenous Buffalo breed and the presence of the nonsynonymous SNP is indicative of its unique genomic architecture. Sequence alignment and homology across species using BLAST analysis revealed 97%, 97%, 99%, 98%, and 80% sequence homology with Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Homo sapiens, respectively.

PHILADELPHIA--(BUSINESS WIRE)--A local health system, a Doylestown mother, a regional organ and tissue procurement organization, and a physician who captured international attention taking on the NFL with his discoveries of the dangers of repeated blows to the heads of professional athletes will be honored by the National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI) Nov. 18 at the organization’s annual Service to Science recognition awards dinner in the Logan Hotel ballroom. The evening caps off a day-l

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