Sacks S.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc |
Therapeutic Communities | Year: 2010
This paper reviews the development of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) as an integrated approach to the treatment of co-occurring disorders. Four research studies are presented, each of which examined the effectiveness of the MTC within a particular population and a particular setting; all 902 volunteer subjects had mental disorders (most of these were serious disorders) co-occurring with substance use disorders, and all four studies were undertaken by the same investigative team. Significantly better outcomes were observed for the MTC group in every study, but the measures and domains in which differences were detected varied from study to study. A quantitative synthesis (using meta-analysis) detected significant improvements in outcomes for the MTC group in five of six outcome domains (substance use, mental health, crime, employment and housing); no significant differences were detected in HIV-risk. The review of research concludes with brief summaries of preliminary findings from two current studies. The paper then transitions to a closing discussion of staff training, aftercare services, and future directions for research related to the MTC. The substantial base of research supporting the efficacy of the MTC approach for persons with cooccurring disorders that has accumulated should encourage programme and policy officials to consider using MTC programmes for populations with co-occurring disorders. © The Author(s).
Clatts M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan |
Giang L.M.,Center for Research and Training on |
Goldsamt L.,NDRI |
Colon-Lopez V.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2010
Background: Surveillance studies have noted intravenous injection of promethazine hydrochloride (PHC) among populations that use heroin in south and southeast Asia. However, little is known about onset and initiation of PHC use and its relationship to habitual heroin use. Methods: As part of a longitudinal study of heroin initiation, a sample of 179 new heroin users, aged 15-27 years, were interviewed between October 2005 and December 2006 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to characterize age at promethazine initiation and its association with relevant covariates. Results: 76% reported lifetime use of PHC. Mean age of PHC initiation was 21.3 years, on average 6 months following onset of heroin injection. In multivariate analysis, lifetime use of diazepam [HR = 1.69 (1.17, 2.44); p-value = .01] and injecting heroin for more than 1.58 years [HR = 1.46 (1.04, 2.06); p-value = .03] were associated with PHC initiation. Conclusion: Intravenous injection of PHC is a relatively common practice among young injection heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam who use it on a situational basis to substitute for heroin (when heroin is not available or when heroin is too costly) or to augment the effects of an inadequate heroin dosing (delaying onset of heroin withdraw). Existing drug prevention strategies in Vietnam are focused primarily on heroin and most new heroin users initiate PHC use without prior knowledge of its high risk for serious vein damage. Future research is needed on the PHC use among heroin users, including long-term medical consequences of PHC exposure. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Dombrowski K.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln |
Khan B.,York College |
Mclean K.,The Graduate Center, CUNY |
Curtis R.,York College |
And 3 more authors.
Substance Use and Misuse | Year: 2013
Patterns of risk in injecting drug user (IDU) networks have been a key focus of network approaches to HIV transmission histories. New network modeling techniques allow for a reexamination of these patterns with greater statistical accuracy and the comparative weighting of model elements. This paper describes the results of a reexamination of network data from the SFHR and P90 data sets using Exponential Random Graph Modeling. The results show that "transitive closure" is an important feature of IDU network topologies, and provides relative importance measures for race/ethnicity, age, gender, and number of risk partners in predicting risk relationships. Copyright © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Magotra A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences |
Naskar S.,National Research Center on Pig |
Das B.,Assam Agricultural University |
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2015
The Follicle stimulating hormone beta polypeptide (FSHβ) gene has been investigated as a candidate gene for litter size because of its role in maturation of small and medium follicles into ovulating large follicles. Genes coding follicle stimulating hormone have been found to have significant effects on litter size in pigs. The aim of the study was to investigate the polymorphism of the first intron of FSH-β gene present in Ghungroo, Niang Megha and Nagaland local pigs of India. PCR based short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE) detection method and PCR–RFLP were carried out to identify the polymorphism in FSHβ gene. Significantly higher frequencies of SINE−/− and SINE+/− genotypes were observed in Ghungroo pigs as compared to Niang Megha and Nagaland local pigs. PCR–RFLP study also showed higher frequency of T allele in all the three breeds even though there existed difference in genotypes among breeds. Association studies clearly demonstrated that SINE−/− genotypes have significantly higher litter size and weight at birth as well as at weaning. SINE −/− genotypes have higher number of live births too. Moderately high D′ value indicates that haplotypic pattern within the two loci can be utilized for marker assisted selection for litter traits in pigs. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Yadav N.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Sharma V.,National Dairy Research Institute |
Kapila S.,NDRI |
Malik R.K.,NDRI |
Arora S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016
Wistar rats fed with partially hydrolysed psyllium husk (PHPH) supplemented yoghurt for 60 days showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease of 10.6% in triacylglycerol level (TGs), 16.2% in total cholesterol (TC), 53.01% in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and an increase of 25.49% in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in their blood. In addition, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and lactobacilli count in the faecal matter of PHPH supplemented yoghurt fed rat group were high compared to the faecal matter of the native psyllium husk supplemented yoghurt fed rat group and other control groups (positive, negative and test control). Results showed that psyllium husk retained its hypocholesterolaemic property on partial hydrolysis besides the increase in its prebiotic effect. Therefore, the biofunctional effect of PHPH on cardiovascular and gut health (by qualitatively changing the gut microbiota) can be accounted for hypocholesterolaemic and prebiotic effects, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.