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Houston, TX, United States

Memoli V.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Beumer J.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Anyang B.N.,University of Pittsburgh | Kurie J.M.,nderson Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi; vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522, and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven, respectively, by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines, vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1, and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation, and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus posttreatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pretreatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in posttreatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(8); 1545-55. © 2013 AACR. Source


Zhang S.-J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Zhang S.-J.,Nanjing Medical University | Rampal R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Manshouri T.,nderson Cancer Center | And 11 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Leukemic transformation (LT) of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Although previous candidate genetic studies have identified mutations in MPN patients who develop acute leukemia, the complement of genetic abnormalities in MPN patients who undergo LT is not known nor have specific molecular abnormalities been shown to have clinical relevance in this setting. We performed high-throughput resequencing of 22 genes in 53 patients with LT after MPN to characterize the frequency of known myeloid mutations in this entity. In addition to JAK2 and TET2 mutations, which occur commonly in LT after MPN, we identified recurrent mutations in the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) gene (18.9%) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformed from MPNs. SRSF2 mutations are more common in AML derived from MPNs compared with LT after myelodysplasia (4.8%) or de novo AML (5.6%), respectively (P = .05). Importantly, SRSF2 mutations are associated with worsened overall survival in MPN patients who undergo LT in univariate (P = .03; HR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.10-7.00) and multivariate analysis (P < .05; HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.01- 4.42). These data suggest that SRSF2 mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of LT and may guide novel therapeutic approaches for MPN patients who undergo LT. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Kang Y.,Oregon State University | Nian H.,Vanderbilt University | Rajendran P.,Texas A&M University | Dashwood W.M.,Texas A&M University | And 10 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-a-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Wolff J.E.,Tufts Medical Center | Brown R.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Buryanek J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Pfister S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: A new generation of anticancer drugs has reached clinical care in common diseases, but their use in rare diseases such as pediatric brain tumors lags behind since conventional clinical trial design requires larger patient numbers. Procedure: We designed individualized treatment protocols for pediatric patients with relapsed brain tumors, based upon the patient's treatment history. In addition, each tumor was analyzed with morphoproteomics using a panel of markers to show treatment targets, resulting in a list of potential novel drugs to be added to chemotherapy. Here, we present the concept and report the experiences of the first patients enrolled in the program. Results: Eleven treatment protocols were designed using morphoproteomic information and given to eight patients. The histological diagnoses included: medulloblastoma (n=3), glioblastoma multiforme (n=2), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n=1), choroid plexus carcinoma (n=1), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (n=1). Tumor markers included p-ERK, Topoisomerase IIa, Bcl-2, VEGF-A, p-STAT3, ER-beta, p-mTOR, and p-NF-kappaBp65. The novel agents included sorafenib, bevacizumab, fulvestrant, rapamycin, bortezomib, and curcumin. The response to the first protocol was complete response: 1, partial response: 1, stable disease: 0, progressive disease: 4, and continuous complete remission: 2. The median Event-Free Survival was 0.32 year±0.4. For the comparison with the institutional control group, the individual response probability was calculated. The observed response was superior to the historical controls (P=0.006 Whitman U-test). Conclusion: This approach warrants further, systematic evaluation as proof of concept and then expansion to drug-specific hypotheses. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. Source


Colen R.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Foster I.,University of Chicago | Gatenby R.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Giger M.E.,University of Chicago | And 13 more authors.
Translational Oncology | Year: 2014

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Imaging Program organized two related workshops on June 26-27, 2013, entitled “Correlating Imaging Phenotypes with Genomics Signatures Research” and “Scalable Computational Resources as Required for Imaging-Genomics Decision Support Systems.” The first workshop focused on clinical and scientific requirements, exploring our knowledge of phenotypic characteristics of cancer biological properties to determine whether the field is sufficiently advanced to correlate with imaging phenotypes that underpin genomics and clinical outcomes, and exploring new scientific methods to extract phenotypic features from medical images and relate them to genomics analyses. The second workshop focused on computational methods that explore informatics and computational requirements to extract phenotypic features from medical images and relate them to genomics analyses and improve the accessibility and speed of dissemination of existing NIH resources. These workshops linked clinical and scientific requirements of currently known phenotypic and genotypic cancer biology characteristics with imaging phenotypes that underpin genomics and clinical outcomes. The group generated a set of recommendations to NCI leadership and the research community that encourage and support development of the emerging radiogenomics research field to address short-and longer-term goals in cancer research. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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