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Meerupati T.,Lund University | Andersson K.-M.,Lund University | Friman E.,Lund University | Kumar D.,Lund University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity in the Orbiliomycetes suggested that this mechanism was present early in the evolution of the filamentous ascomycetes. © 2013 Meerupati et al. Source

Maurya R.M.,Nd University Of Agriculture And Technology
Water and Energy International

The management of irrigation water plays an important role in Sultanpur district's water availability in the eastern Uttar Pradesh of India. Optimal use of available surface and ground water, in any canal command area would result in their better utilization by maximizing the benefits from the crop production. The water demand and available water resources in the study area are evaluated considering surface and ground water. In the present, paper a simple economic - Engineering optimization model is presented to explore the possibilities of conjunctive use of surface and ground water, using linear programming with various hydrological and management constraints to arrive an optimal cropping pattern for optimal use of water resources for maximizing net benefits. The "TORA-version 1.03" optimization package has been used to arrive at optimal allocation plan of surface water and ground water. The result indicates that conjunctive use options are feasible and can be implemented in the area, which would enhance the overall benefits from cropping activities. Source

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the response of organic nutrients (FYM, Vermicompost and Biodynamic compost), inorganic manures (NPK), biofertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB), micronutrients (zinc and iron) and paclobutrazol (Cultar) on flowering, fruiting, yield and quality of mango cv. Amrapali under high density orcharding. The maximum panicle length (23.92 and 23.96 cm), number of flowers per panicle (1710.67 and 1756.00), fruit set per panicle (194.67 and 201.33) and sex ratio (0.690 and 0.691) were recorded with T 8 (recommended NPK + vermicompost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol) which was at par with T 12 (recommended NPK + biodynamic compost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol). The fruit physical parameters viz., maximum fruit length (9.88 and 10.08 cm), width (6.62 and 6.48 cm), weight (151.25 and 153.00 g), pulp weigh (97.06 and 97.08 g), stone weight (26.45 and 26.62 g), pulp : stone ratio (3.693 and 3.694), number of fruits per tree (163.33 and 184.67) and fruit yield (25.00 and 26.72 q/ha) was recorded with T 8 (recommended NPK + vermicompost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol) closely followed by T 12 (recommended NPK + biodynamic compost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol). However, the chemical composition of fruit viz., maximum TSS (23.72 and 23.91 °Brix), TSS: acid ratio (191.60 and 197.76), ascorbic acid content (44.13 and 45.63 mg/100 g), carotenoids (18.91 and 18.63 mg/100 g), reducing sugars (8.35 and 8.39%), non reducing sugar (9.94 and 9.95%), total sugars (18.29 and 18.34%) and minimum acidity content (0.120 and 0.121%) were recorded with the application of T 8 (recommended NPK + vermicompost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol) which was at par with T 12 (recommended NPK + biodynamic compost + Azotobacter + PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol) during both the years of experimentation. Source

Gupta A.B.,Nd University Of Agriculture And Technology | Gupta R.P.,Nd University Of Agriculture And Technology
Plant Archives

Field experiments conducted during summer and rainy seasons, 2000 indicated that yellow mosaic intensity was higher in rainy seasons (86.3%) as compared to spring (51.1%). The maximum yellow mosaic intensity (86.3%) in T44 was noticed in the 3rd week of September at 28.70C and 79.3 percent relative humidity. The rain recorded 9.2mm and sunshine was 5.7 hr/day. Yellow mosaic incidence varied from 46-51 percent in spring and 82-86 percent during rainy season in susceptible varieties (T44, Pusa Baisakhi and K 851). The losses in grain yield were more when the plants were infected after 25 days of sowing than 35 and 45 DAS. Susceptible varieties showed 81-83% yield loss during rainy season but only 27-31% losses were recorded during spring. Source

Yadav S.,Nd University Of Agriculture And Technology | Singh B.N.,Nd University Of Agriculture And Technology
Plant Archives

A field experiment was conducted during Zaid season of 2010-11 at N.D. University Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.), India to study irrigation of four irrigation schedules based on irrigation water (IW): cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) rate and three planting methods of green gram. The yield and yield attributes viz., number of pods plant-1, number of seed pod-1, harvest index and benefit: cost ratio increased with increase into among the planting methods maximum 1000-seed weight (34.15), grain yield (13.74 qha-1), harvest index (26.03%), net return (Rs. 43592) and benefit: cost ratio 3.37 were recorded with raised bed of plant in method, while minimum with method. The maximum grain yield (14.46 qha-1), harvest index (24.94%) and net return Rs. 44898 were noted the IW: CPE 1.0 at 6cm depth among the different irrigation schedules. Source

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