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Seymour L.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group | Ivy S.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sargent D.,Mayo Medical School | Spriggs D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The optimal design of phase II studies continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, especially studies of newer molecularly targeted agents. The observations that many new therapeutics "fail" in definitive phase III studies, coupled with the numbers of new agents to be tested as well as the increasing costs and complexity of clinical trials, further emphasize the critical importance of robust and efficient phase II design. The Clinical Trial Design Task Force (CTD-TF) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Investigational Drug Steering Committee (IDSC) has published a series of discussion papers on phase II trial design in Clinical Cancer Research. The IDSC has developed formal recommendations about aspects of phase II trial design that are the subject of frequent debate, such as endpoints (response versus progression-free survival), randomization (single-arm designs versus randomization), inclusion of biomarkers, biomarker-based patient enrichment strategies, and statistical design (e.g., two-stage designs versus multiple-group adaptive designs). Although these recommendations in general encourage the use of progression-free survival as the primary endpoint, randomization, inclusion of biomarkers, and incorporation of newer designs, we acknowledge that objective response as an endpoint and single-arm designs remain relevant in certain situations. The design of any clinical trial should always be carefully evaluated and justified based on characteristic specific to the situation. ©2010 AACR.


Woll P.J.,University of Sheffield | Reichardt P.,Robert Roessle Hospital and Tumour Institute | Le Cesne A.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Bonvalot S.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival for resected soft-tissue sarcoma remains unknown. We investigated the effect of intensive adjuvant chemotherapy on survival in patients after resection of high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods: In this multicentre randomised trial, patients with macroscopically resected, Trojani grade II-III soft-tissue sarcomas at any site, no metastases, performance status lower than 2 and aged between 16 and 70 years were eligible within 4 weeks of definitive surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy or no chemotherapy (control group). Randomisation was done with a minimisation technique, stratified by hospital, site of primary tumour, tumour size, planned radiotherapy, and isolated limb perfusion therapy. Chemotherapy consisted of five cycles of doxorubicin 75 mg/m2, ifosfamide 5 g/m2, and lenograstim every 3 weeks. Patients in both groups received radiotherapy if the resection was marginal or the tumour recurrent. The primary endpoint was overall survival and analyses were done by intention to treat. The final results are presented. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00002641. Findings: Between February, 1995, and December, 2003, 351 patients were randomly assigned to the adjuvant chemotherapy group (175 patients) or to the control group (176). 258 (73%) of 351 patients received radiotherapy, 129 in each group. Overall survival did not differ significantly between groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94 [95% CI 0·68-1·31], p=0·72) nor did relapse-free survival (HR 0·91 [0·67-1·22], p=0·51). 5-year overall survival rate was 66·5% (58·8-73·0) in the chemotherapy group and 67·8% (60·3-74·2) in the control group. Chemotherapy was well tolerated, with 130 (80%) of 163 patients who started it completing all five cycles. 16 (10%) patients had grade 3 or 4 fever or infection, but no deaths due to toxic effects were recorded. Interpretation: Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide in resected soft-tissue sarcoma showed no benefit in relapse-free survival or overall survival. Future studies should focus on patients with larger, grade III, and extremity sarcomas. Funding: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Rhone-Poulenc-Rorer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Reiman T.,Dalhousie University | Lai R.,University of Alberta | Veillard A.S.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Paris E.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The IALT, JBR.10, ANITA and Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 trials compared adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (R-NSCLC). Data from the metastatic setting suggest high tumor class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression is a determinant of insensitivity to tubulin-targeting agents (e.g. vinorelbine, paclitaxel). In 265 patients from JBR.10 (vinorelbine-cisplatin versus observation), high TUBB3 was an adverse prognostic factor and was associated (nonsignificantly) with 'greater' survival benefit from chemotherapy. We explored this further in additional patients from JBR.10 and the other three trials.Patients and methods: TUBB3 immunohistochemical staining was scored for 1149 patients on the four trials. The original JBR.10 cut-off scores were used to classify tumors as TUBB3 high or low. The prognostic and predictive value of TUBB3 on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by Cox models stratified by trial and adjusted for clinical factors.Results: High TUBB3 expression was prognostic for OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (1.07-1.51), P = 0.008) and DFS [HR = 1.30 (1.11-1.53), P = 0.001). TUBB3 was not predictive of a differential treatment effect [interaction P = 0.20 (OS), P = 0.23 (DFS)]. Subset analysis (n = 420) on vinorelbine-cisplatin gave similar results.Conclusions: The prognostic effect of high TUBB3 expression in patients with R-NSCLC has been validated. We were unable to confirm a predictive effect for TUBB3. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Mackay H.J.,Princess Margaret Hospital | Gallinger S.,Princess Margaret Hospital | Tsao M.S.,Princess Margaret Hospital | McLachlin C.M.,London Health Sciences Center | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Aim: The impact of PTEN status and microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of women with endometrial cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate MSI and PTEN expression in two patient populations using data from NCIC CTG studies. Methods: Archival paraffin embedded tumour from women with endometrial cancer enrolled in NCIC CTG studies: EN5 (stage I/II) and IND 126, 148 and 160 (advanced/recurrent disease) were examined for MSI using BAT25/26 and for PTEN expression using immunohistochemistry. PTEN and MSI status were correlated with clinicopathologic variables and survival using data from NCIC CTG trial databases. Results: PTEN and MSI results were available from 128 and 163 patients, respectively. MSI+ tumours were more common in women enrolled in EN5 compared to the IND studies (p = 0.01). PTEN negative tumours were associated with improved survival in both univariate (hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.94; p = 0.03) and multivariate (adjusted HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.96; p = 0.03) analyses in women enrolled in IND studies. Microsatellite stable tumours were associated with an improved prognosis in univariate (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.51; p < 0.0001) and multivariate (adjusted HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.5; p < 0.0001) analyses in women enrolled in EN5. There was no significant correlation between MSI and PTEN status. Conclusions: PTEN negative tumours in women with advanced disease are associated with improved survival. MSI+ tumours are more common in early stage disease and in this group of women are associated with a worse prognosis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cheang M.C.U.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Cheang M.C.U.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Voduc K.D.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Tu D.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: Recent studies suggest that intrinsic breast cancer subtypes may differ in their responsiveness to specific chemotherapy regimens. We examined this hypothesis on NCIC.CTG MA.5, a clinical trial randomizing premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer to adjuvant CMF (cyclophosphamide- methotrexate-fluorouracil) versus CEF (cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-fluorouracil) chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Intrinsic subtype was determined for 476 tumors using the quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR PAM50 gene expression test. Luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched (HER2-E), and basal-like subtypes were correlated with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank testing. Multivariable Cox regression analyses determined significance of interaction between treatment and intrinsic subtypes. Results: Intrinsic subtypes were associated with RFS (P = 0.0005) and OS (P < 0.0001) on the combined cohort. The HER2-E showed the greatest benefit from CEF versus CMF, with absolute 5-year RFS and OS differences exceeding 20%, whereas there was a less than 2% difference for non-HER2-E tumors (interaction test P = 0.03 for RFS and 0.03 for OS). Within clinically defined Her2 + tumors, 79% (72 of 91) were classified as the HER2-E subtype by gene expression and this subset was strongly associated with better response to CEF versus CMF (62% vs. 22%, P = 0.0006). There was no significant difference in benefit between CEF and CMF in basal-like tumors [n = 94; HR, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.1 for RFS and HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.7-2.5 for OS]. Conclusion: HER2-E strongly predicted anthracycline sensitivity. The chemotherapy-sensitive basal-like tumors showed no added benefit for CEF over CMF, suggesting that nonanthracycline regimens may be adequate in this subtype although further investigation is required. ©2012 AACR.


Monzon J.G.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group | Dancey J.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2012

In the last year, the armamentarium of melanoma therapeutics has radically changed. Recent discoveries in melanoma biology and immunology have led to novel therapeutics targeting known oncogenes and immunotherapeutic antibodies. Phase III clinical trials of these agents have reported measurable and meaningful benefits to patients with metastatic disease. In this article, we review recent findings and discuss their significance in melanoma therapy. As our understanding of melanoma biology grows, this initial therapeutic success may be enhanced through the use of molecular markers to select patients, and new targeted immunotherapies in sequential or combination drug regimens. © 2012 Monzon and Dancey, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Zorzi A.P.,University of Western Ontario | Bernstein M.,Isaak Walton Killam Health Center | Samson Y.,Hopital Ste. Justine | Wall D.A.,Cancer Care Manitoba | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Pracinostat (SB939) is a potent oral inhibitor of class 1, 2, and 4 histone deacetylases (HDAC). The adult recommended phase II dose (RP2D) is 60mg po three times per week (t.i.w.) for 3 weeks every 4 weeks. This study assessed the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of pracinostat and determined the RP2D in children with refractory solid tumors. Methods: Pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors were treated with oral pracinostat t.i.w. for 3 consecutive weeks, followed by 1 week off dosing. Three dose levels-25, 35, and 45mg/m2 were evaluated using a standard 3+3 cohort design. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were optional. Results: Twelve patients were enrolled. The most common diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma. Most adverse events (AEs) were hematological with five (40%) patients experiencing grade 3 neutropenia. Non-hematological AEs were generally grade 1. No dose limiting toxicities occurred. More hematological and non-hematological AEs occurred at 45mg/m2: Two of five patients experienced Grade 3 neutropenia and one each Grade 3 thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, Grade 1 fatigue and anorexia occurred in three. The RP2D was declared to be 45mg/m2 (comparable to an adult dose of 80mg). One patient had a best response of stable disease (duration of 2.9 months). Three patients on 25mg/m2 and one each on 35 and 45mg/m2 participated in the PK study. No dose related changes in Cmax or AUC occurred. Conclusions: Pracinostat is reasonably well tolerated in children with refractory solid tumors. The RP2D is 45mg/m2. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;60:1868-1874. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Maire G.,Queen's University | Martin J.W.,Queen's University | Yoshimoto M.,Queen's University | Chilton-MacNeill S.,Hospital for Sick Children | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Genetics | Year: 2011

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. This study assesses whether deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is a post-transcriptional mechanism leading to gene expression changes in osteosarcoma. miRNA expression profiling was performed for 723 human miRNAs in 7 osteosarcoma tumors, and 38 miRNAs differentially expressed ≥10-fold (28 under- and 10 overexpressed) were identified. In most cases, observed changes in miRNA expression were DNA copy number-correlated. However, various mechanisms of alteration, including positional and/or epigenetic modifications, may have contributed to the expression change of 23 closely linked miRNAs in cytoband 14q32. To develop a comprehensive molecular genetic map of osteosarcoma, the miRNA profiles were integrated with previously published array comparative genomic hybridization DNA imbalance and mRNA gene expression profiles from a set of partially overlapping osteosarcoma tumor samples. Many of the predicted gene targets of differentially expressed miRNA are involved in intracellular signaling pathways important in osteosarcoma, including Notch, RAS/p21, MAPK, Wnt, and the Jun/FOS pathways. By integrating data on copy number variation with mRNA and miRNA expression profiles, we identified osteosarcoma-associated gene expression changes that are DNA copy number-correlated, DNA copy number-independent, mRNA-driven, and/or modulated by miRNA expression. These data collectively suggest that miRNAs provide a novel post-transcriptional mechanism for fine-tuning the expression of specific genes and pathways relevant to osteosarcoma. Thus, the miRNA identified in this manner may provide a starting point for experimentally modulating therapeutically relevant pathways in this tumor. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Macdonald D.A.,Queen Elizabeth Health science Center | Assouline S.E.,McGill University | Eisenhauer E.A.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group | Couban S.,Queen Elizabeth Health science Center | And 4 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma | Year: 2013

Sorafenib is active in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group initiated a phase I/II study of the combination of sorafenib with cytarabine in older patients with AML or high-risk MDS who were unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy. FLT3 mutational status was determined in all patients. Twenty-one patients were enrolled (four MDS, 17 AML) with a median age of 77 years. The recommended phase II dose (RP2D) was cytarabine 10 mg bid days 1-10 and sorafenib 600 mg/day days 2-28. Dose-limiting toxicities were fatigue, sepsis and skin rash. Of 15 evaluable patients treated at the RP2D, two patients responded. The overall response rate for eligible patients was 10%. FLT3 mutations were found in only three patients. We conclude that this combination of sorafenib and cytarabine has limited activity in this unselected cohort of elderly patients with AML/MDS in which FLT3 mutations seemed underrepresented. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Goss P.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Ingle J.N.,Mayo Medical School | Ales-Martinez J.E.,Hospital Nuestra Senora Of Sonsoles | Chlebowski R.T.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 15 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen and raloxifene have limited patient acceptance for primary prevention of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors prevent more contralateral breast cancers and cause fewer side effects than tamoxifen in patients with early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of exemestane designed to detect a 65% relative reduction in invasive breast cancer, eligible postmenopausal women 35 years of age or older had at least one of the following risk factors: 60 years of age or older; Gail 5-year risk score greater than 1.66% (chances in 100 of invasive breast cancer developing within 5 years); prior atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ; or ductal carcinoma in situ with mastectomy. Toxic effects and health-related and menopause-specific qualities of life were measured. RESULTS: A total of 4560 women for whom the median age was 62.5 years and the median Gail risk score was 2.3% were randomly assigned to either exemestane or placebo. At a median follow-up of 35 months, 11 invasive breast cancers were detected in those given exemestane and in 32 of those given placebo, with a 65% relative reduction in the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer (0.19% vs. 0.55%; hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.70; P = 0.002). The annual incidence of invasive plus noninvasive (ductal carcinoma in situ) breast cancers was 0.35% on exemestane and 0.77% on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.79; P = 0.004). Adverse events occurred in 88% of the exemestane group and 85% of the placebo group (P = 0.003), with no significant differences between the two groups in terms of skeletal fractures, cardiovascular events, other cancers, or treatment-related deaths. Minimal quality-of-life differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Exemestane significantly reduced invasive breast cancers in postmenopausal women who were at moderately increased risk for breast cancer. During a median follow-up period of 3 years, exemestane was associated with no serious toxic effects and only minimal changes in health-related quality of life. (Funded by Pfizer and others; NCIC CTG MAP.3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00083174.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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