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Reiman T.,Dalhousie University | Lai R.,University of Alberta | Veillard A.S.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Paris E.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The IALT, JBR.10, ANITA and Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 trials compared adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (R-NSCLC). Data from the metastatic setting suggest high tumor class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression is a determinant of insensitivity to tubulin-targeting agents (e.g. vinorelbine, paclitaxel). In 265 patients from JBR.10 (vinorelbine-cisplatin versus observation), high TUBB3 was an adverse prognostic factor and was associated (nonsignificantly) with 'greater' survival benefit from chemotherapy. We explored this further in additional patients from JBR.10 and the other three trials.Patients and methods: TUBB3 immunohistochemical staining was scored for 1149 patients on the four trials. The original JBR.10 cut-off scores were used to classify tumors as TUBB3 high or low. The prognostic and predictive value of TUBB3 on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by Cox models stratified by trial and adjusted for clinical factors.Results: High TUBB3 expression was prognostic for OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (1.07-1.51), P = 0.008) and DFS [HR = 1.30 (1.11-1.53), P = 0.001). TUBB3 was not predictive of a differential treatment effect [interaction P = 0.20 (OS), P = 0.23 (DFS)]. Subset analysis (n = 420) on vinorelbine-cisplatin gave similar results.Conclusions: The prognostic effect of high TUBB3 expression in patients with R-NSCLC has been validated. We were unable to confirm a predictive effect for TUBB3. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Woll P.J.,University of Sheffield | Reichardt P.,Robert Roessle Hospital and Tumour Institute | Le Cesne A.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Bonvalot S.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival for resected soft-tissue sarcoma remains unknown. We investigated the effect of intensive adjuvant chemotherapy on survival in patients after resection of high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods: In this multicentre randomised trial, patients with macroscopically resected, Trojani grade II-III soft-tissue sarcomas at any site, no metastases, performance status lower than 2 and aged between 16 and 70 years were eligible within 4 weeks of definitive surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy or no chemotherapy (control group). Randomisation was done with a minimisation technique, stratified by hospital, site of primary tumour, tumour size, planned radiotherapy, and isolated limb perfusion therapy. Chemotherapy consisted of five cycles of doxorubicin 75 mg/m2, ifosfamide 5 g/m2, and lenograstim every 3 weeks. Patients in both groups received radiotherapy if the resection was marginal or the tumour recurrent. The primary endpoint was overall survival and analyses were done by intention to treat. The final results are presented. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00002641. Findings: Between February, 1995, and December, 2003, 351 patients were randomly assigned to the adjuvant chemotherapy group (175 patients) or to the control group (176). 258 (73%) of 351 patients received radiotherapy, 129 in each group. Overall survival did not differ significantly between groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94 [95% CI 0·68-1·31], p=0·72) nor did relapse-free survival (HR 0·91 [0·67-1·22], p=0·51). 5-year overall survival rate was 66·5% (58·8-73·0) in the chemotherapy group and 67·8% (60·3-74·2) in the control group. Chemotherapy was well tolerated, with 130 (80%) of 163 patients who started it completing all five cycles. 16 (10%) patients had grade 3 or 4 fever or infection, but no deaths due to toxic effects were recorded. Interpretation: Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide in resected soft-tissue sarcoma showed no benefit in relapse-free survival or overall survival. Future studies should focus on patients with larger, grade III, and extremity sarcomas. Funding: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Rhone-Poulenc-Rorer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Seymour L.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group | Ivy S.P.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sargent D.,Mayo Medical School | Spriggs D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The optimal design of phase II studies continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, especially studies of newer molecularly targeted agents. The observations that many new therapeutics "fail" in definitive phase III studies, coupled with the numbers of new agents to be tested as well as the increasing costs and complexity of clinical trials, further emphasize the critical importance of robust and efficient phase II design. The Clinical Trial Design Task Force (CTD-TF) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Investigational Drug Steering Committee (IDSC) has published a series of discussion papers on phase II trial design in Clinical Cancer Research. The IDSC has developed formal recommendations about aspects of phase II trial design that are the subject of frequent debate, such as endpoints (response versus progression-free survival), randomization (single-arm designs versus randomization), inclusion of biomarkers, biomarker-based patient enrichment strategies, and statistical design (e.g., two-stage designs versus multiple-group adaptive designs). Although these recommendations in general encourage the use of progression-free survival as the primary endpoint, randomization, inclusion of biomarkers, and incorporation of newer designs, we acknowledge that objective response as an endpoint and single-arm designs remain relevant in certain situations. The design of any clinical trial should always be carefully evaluated and justified based on characteristic specific to the situation. ©2010 AACR. Source


Mauguen A.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Pignon J.-P.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Burdett S.,MRC Clinical Trials Unit | Domerg C.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The gold standard endpoint in clinical trials of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for lung cancer is overall survival. Although reliable and simple to measure, this endpoint takes years to observe. Surrogate endpoints that would enable earlier assessments of treatment effects would be useful. We assessed the correlations between potential surrogate endpoints and overall survival at individual and trial levels. Methods: We analysed individual patients' data from 15 071 patients involved in 60 randomised clinical trials that were assessed in six meta-analyses. Two meta-analyses were of adjuvant chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer, three were of sequential or concurrent chemotherapy, and one was of modified radiotherapy in locally advanced lung cancer. We investigated disease-free survival (DFS) or progression-free survival (PFS), defined as the time from randomisation to local or distant relapse or death, and locoregional control, defined as the time to the first local event, as potential surrogate endpoints. At the individual level we calculated the squared correlations between distributions of these three endpoints and overall survival, and at the trial level we calculated the squared correlation between treatment effects for endpoints. Findings: In trials of adjuvant chemotherapy, correlations between DFS and overall survival were very good at the individual level (ρ2=0·83, 95% CI 0·83-0·83 in trials without radiotherapy, and 0·87, 0·87-0·87 in trials with radiotherapy) and excellent at trial level (R2=0·92, 95% CI 0·88-0·95 in trials without radiotherapy and 0·99, 0·98-1·00 in trials with radiotherapy). In studies of locally advanced disease, correlations between PFS and overall survival were very good at the individual level (ρ2 range 0·77-0·85, dependent on the regimen being assessed) and trial level (R2 range 0·89-0·97). In studies with data on locoregional control, individual-level correlations were good (ρ2=0·71, 95% CI 0·71-0·71 for concurrent chemotherapy and ρ2=0·61, 0·61-0·61 for modified vs standard radiotherapy) and trial-level correlations very good (R2=0·85, 95% CI 0·77-0·92 for concurrent chemotherapy and R2=0·95, 0·91-0·98 for modified vs standard radiotherapy). Interpretation: We found a high level of evidence that DFS is a valid surrogate endpoint for overall survival in studies of adjuvant chemotherapy involving patients with non-small-cell lung cancers, and PFS in those of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancers. Extrapolation to targeted agents, however, is not automatically warranted. Funding: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique, Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, British Medical Research Council, Sanofi-Aventis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Maire G.,Queens University | Martin J.W.,Queens University | Yoshimoto M.,Queens University | Squire J.A.,Queens University | Squire J.A.,NCIC Clinical Trials Group
Cancer Genetics | Year: 2011

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. This study assesses whether deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is a post-transcriptional mechanism leading to gene expression changes in osteosarcoma. miRNA expression profiling was performed for 723 human miRNAs in 7 osteosarcoma tumors, and 38 miRNAs differentially expressed ≥10-fold (28 under- and 10 overexpressed) were identified. In most cases, observed changes in miRNA expression were DNA copy number-correlated. However, various mechanisms of alteration, including positional and/or epigenetic modifications, may have contributed to the expression change of 23 closely linked miRNAs in cytoband 14q32. To develop a comprehensive molecular genetic map of osteosarcoma, the miRNA profiles were integrated with previously published array comparative genomic hybridization DNA imbalance and mRNA gene expression profiles from a set of partially overlapping osteosarcoma tumor samples. Many of the predicted gene targets of differentially expressed miRNA are involved in intracellular signaling pathways important in osteosarcoma, including Notch, RAS/p21, MAPK, Wnt, and the Jun/FOS pathways. By integrating data on copy number variation with mRNA and miRNA expression profiles, we identified osteosarcoma-associated gene expression changes that are DNA copy number-correlated, DNA copy number-independent, mRNA-driven, and/or modulated by miRNA expression. These data collectively suggest that miRNAs provide a novel post-transcriptional mechanism for fine-tuning the expression of specific genes and pathways relevant to osteosarcoma. Thus, the miRNA identified in this manner may provide a starting point for experimentally modulating therapeutically relevant pathways in this tumor. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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