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Zhang G.,International Laboratory Branch | Cai F.,Duke University | Zhou Z.,International Laboratory Branch | DeVos J.,International Laboratory Branch | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

High-throughput, sensitive, and cost-effective HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) detection assays are needed for large-scale monitoring of the emergence and transmission of HIVDR in resource-limited settings.Using suspension array technology, we have developed a multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay that can simultaneously detect major HIVDR mutations at 20 loci.Forty-five allele-specific primers tagged with unique 24-base oligonucleotides at the 5= end were designed to detect wild-type and mutant alleles at the 20 loci of HIV-1 subtype C.TheMASassay was first established and optimized with three plasmid templates (C-wt, C-mut1, and C-mut2) and then evaluated using 148 plasma specimens from HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals.All the wild-type and mutant alleles were unequivocally distinguished with plasmid templates, and the limits of detection were 1.56% for K219Q and K219E, 3.13% for L76V, 6.25% for K65R, K70R, L74V, L100I, K103N, K103R, Q151M, Y181C, and I47V, and 12.5% for M41L, K101P, K101E, V106A, V106M, Y115F, M184V, Y188L, G190A, V32I, I47A, I84V, and L90M.Analyses of 148 plasma specimens revealed that theMASassay gave 100% concordance with conventional sequencing at eight loci and>95% (range, 95.21% to 99.32%) concordance at the remaining 12 loci.The differences observed were caused mainly by 24 additional low-abundance alleles detected by theMASassay.Ultradeep sequencing analysis confirmed 15 of the 16 low-abundance alleles.This multiplex, sensitive, and straightforward result-reporting assay represents a new efficient genotyping tool for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring.© 2013, American Society for Microbiology.All Rights Reserved.


Lanier Y.,NCHHSTP | Castellanos T.,NCHHSTP | Barrow R.Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jordan W.C.,HIV AIDS Advisory Committee | And 2 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2014

Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Pitasi M.A.,Emory University | Smith A.J.,NCHHSTP | Teshale E.H.,NCHHSTP
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2014

Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We used serologic data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system to determine the prevalence and correlates of HBV infection, immunization, and susceptibility in a sample of Los Angeles County MSM. Approximately 19 % (95 % CI 15-24 %) had serologic evidence of current or past infection, while 35 % (95 % CI 30-40 %) were susceptible. Compared with the youngest age group, MSM ages 40-49 years had a lower prevalence of immunization (aPR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17-0.45) and a higher prevalence of infection (aPR 8.53, 95 % CI 3.95-18.4) and susceptibility (aPR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.13-3.63). We also observed poor concordance between self-reported and serologic measures of vaccination. Our results indicate the possibility of missed opportunities to vaccinate MSM. Gaps in implementing existing vaccination strategies must be addressed to increase hepatitis B vaccination coverage for MSM, especially in older age groups. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Miller K.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lin C.Y.,NCHHSTP | Poulsen M.N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Fasula A.,NCHHSTP | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Education and Prevention | Year: 2011

We examine efficacy of the Parents Matter! Program (PMP), a program to teach African-American parents of preadolescents sexual communication and HIV-prevention skills, through a multicenter, randomized control trial. A total of 1115 parent-child participants were randomized to one of three intervention arms (enhanced, brief, control). Percentages and 95% confidence intervals compare parents' perception of child readiness to learn about sexual issues, communication effectiveness, and dyad concordance from baseline to 12 months postintervention. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compare the changes in scores measuring communication content in HIV/ AIDS, abstinence, and condom use. Compared to control, parents in the enhanced arm increased perception of child readiness to learn about sex (16% vs. 29%; p <.001), and a greater proportion of parent-child dyads reported concordant responses on communication topics: HIV/AIDS (15%, 95% CI = 8-21%; p <.001), abstinence (13%, 95% CI = 7-20%; p <.001), condoms (15%, 95% CI = 9-22%; p <.001). Increases in communication scores in HIV/AIDS, abstinence, and condom use were greater in the enhanced arm than control (p < 0.01). We conclude that the enhanced PMP can help parents educate children about HIV and prepare children to avoid sexual risk. © 2011 The Guilford Press.


Heijne J.C.M.,University of Bern | Tao G.,NCHHSTP | Kent C.K.,NCHHSTP | Low N.,University of Bern
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Routine chlamydia screening is a recommended preventive intervention for sexually active women aged ≤25 years in the U.S. but rates of regular uptake are not known. Purpose: This study aimed to examine rates of annual chlamydia testing and factors associated with repeat testing in a population of U.S. women. Methods: Women aged 1525 years at any time from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2006 who were enrolled in 130 commercial health plans were included. Data relating to chlamydia tests were analyzed in 2009. Chlamydia testing rates (per 100 woman-years) by age and rates of repeated annual testing were estimated. Poisson regression was used to examine the effects of age and previous testing on further chlamydia testing within the observation period. Results: In total, 2,632,365 women were included. The chlamydia testing rate over the whole study period was 13.6 per 100 woman years after adjusting for age-specific sexual activity; 8.5 (95% CI=6.0, 12.3) per 100 woman-years in those aged 15 years; and 17.7 (95% CI=17.1, 18.9) in those aged 25 years. Among women enrolled for the entire 5-year study period, 25.9% had at least one test but only 0.1% had a chlamydia test every year. Women tested more than once and older women were more likely to be tested again in the observation period. Conclusions: The low rates of regular annual chlamydia testing do not comply with national recommendations and would not be expected to have a major impact on the control of chlamydia infection at the population level. © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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