NCEZID

Cedar City, GA, United States
Cedar City, GA, United States

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Raczniak G.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Rudolph K.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chikoyak L.,Yukon Kuskokwim Delta Regional Hospital | Cox R.S.,Yukon Kuskokwim Delta Regional Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Safety and Health at Work | Year: 2015

Background In 2012, the Alaska Section of Epidemiology investigated personnel potentially exposed to a Brucella suis isolate as it transited through three laboratories. Methods We summarize the first implementation of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 revised recommendations for monitoring such exposures: (1) risk classification; (2) antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis; (3) serologic monitoring; and (4) symptom surveillance. Results Over 30 people were assessed for exposure and subsequently monitored for development of illness. No cases of laboratory-associated brucellosis occurred. Changes were made to gaps in laboratory biosafety practices that had been identified in the investigation. Conclusion Achieving full compliance for the precise schedule of serologic monitoring was challenging and resource intensive for the laboratory performing testing. More refined exposure assessments could inform decision making for follow-up to maximize likelihood of detecting persons at risk while not overtaxing resources. © 2015, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.


Foote E.M.,University of Washington | Singleton R.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Holman R.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Seeman S.M.,NCEZID | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2015

Background. The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose. Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods. A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results. The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions. Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children. © 2015 Eric M. Foote et al.


Singleton R.,055 Tudor Center Dr | Singleton R.,Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium | Singleton R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lescher R.,Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Background: Rickets and vitamin D deficiency appeared to increase in Alaskan children starting in the 1990s. We evaluated the epidemiology of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in Alaska native (AN) children in 2001-2010. Methods: We analyzed 2001-2010 visits with rickets or vitamin D deficiency diagnosis for AN and American Indian children and the general US population aged <10 years. We conducted a case-control study of AN rickets/vitamin D deficient cases and age- and region-matched controls. Results: In AN children, annual rickets-associated hospitalization rate (2.23/100,000 children/year) was higher than the general US rate (1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.39). Rickets incidence increased with latitude. Rickets/vitamin D deficiency cases were more likely to have malnutrition (OR 38.1; 95% CI 4.9-294), had similar breast-feeding prevalence, and were less likely to have received vitamin D supplementation (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.1-0.87) than controls. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of latitude, malnutrition, and lack of vitamin D supplementation as risk factors for rickets. © 2015 by De Gruyter.


Holman R.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hennessy T.W.,NCEZID | Haberling D.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Callinan L.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2013

Objectives. To examine the epidemiology of infectious disease (ID) hospitalisations among Alaska Native (AN) people. Methods. Hospitalisations with a first-listed ID diagnosis for American Indians and ANs residing in Alaska during 2001-2009 were selected from the Indian Health Service direct and contract health service inpatient data. ID hospitalisations to describe the general US population were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Annual and average annual (2007-2009) hospitalization rates were calculated. Results. During 2007-2009, IDs accounted for 20% of hospitalisations among AN people. The 20072009 average annual age-adjusted ID hospitalisation rate (2126/100,000 persons) was higher than that for the general US population (1679/100,000; 95% CI 1639-1720). The ID hospitalisation rate for AN people increased from 2001 to 2009 (17%, p<0.001). Although the rate during 2001-2009 declined for AN infants (<1 year of age; p=0.03), they had the highest 2007-2009 average annual rate (15106/100,000), which was 3 times the rate for general US infants (5215/100,000; 95% CI 4783-5647). The annual rates for the age groups 1-4, 5-19, 40-49, 50-59 and 70-79 years increased (p<0.05). The highest 2007-2009 age-adjusted average annual ID hospitalisation rates were in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) (3492/100,000) and Kotzebue (3433/ 100,000) regions; infant rates were 30422/100,000 and 26698/100,000 in these regions, respectively. During 2007-2009, lower respiratory tract infections accounted for 39% of all ID hospitalisations and approximately 50% of ID hospitalisations in YK, Kotzebue and Norton Sound, and 74% of infant ID hospitalisations. Conclusions. The ID hospitalisation rate increased for AN people overall. The rate for AN people remained higher than that for the general US population, particularly in infants and in the YK and Kotzebue regions. Prevention measures to reduce ID morbidity among AN people should be increased in high-risk regions and for diseases with high hospitalisation rates. © 2013 Robert C. Holman et al.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of Washington, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and NCEZID
Type: | Journal: International journal of circumpolar health | Year: 2015

The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998-2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006-2008.Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years.A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009-2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998-1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction.The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998-1999 to 2009-2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009-2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6-14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations.Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009-2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.


Jentes E.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Blanton J.D.,NCEZID | Johnson K.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Petersen B.W.,NCEZID | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2014

We assessed rabies vaccine (RV) and immune globulin (RIG) availability on the local market by querying US Embassy medical staff worldwide. Of 112 responses, 23% were from West, Central, and East Africa. RV and RIG availability varied by region. Possible rabies exposures accounted for 2% of all travelers' health inquiries. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S.Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Lankau E.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lankau E.W.,National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases | Cohen N.J.,National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases | Jentes E.S.,National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases | And 13 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014

Rabies prevention and control efforts have been successful in reducing or eliminating virus circulation regionally through vaccination of specific reservoir populations. A notable example of this success is the elimination of canine rabies virus variant from the United States and many other countries. However, increased international travel and trade can pose risks for rapid, long-distance movements of ill or infected persons or animals. Such travel and trade can result in human exposures to rabies virus during travel or transit and could contribute to the re-introduction of canine rabies variant or transmission of other viral variants among animal host populations. We present a review of travel- and trade-associated rabies events that highlight international public health obligations and collaborative opportunities for rabies prevention and control in an age of global travel. Rabies is a fatal disease that warrants proactive coordination among international public health and travel industry partners (such as travel agents, tour companies and airlines) to protect human lives and to prevent the movement of viral variants among host populations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH 615 August 2014 10.1111/zph.12071 Review REVIEW ARTICLE Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Neil K.P.,Epidemic Intelligence Service | Neil K.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sodha S.V.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lukwago L.,Ministry of Health | And 17 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide. In Africa, the lack of laboratory diagnostic capacity limits the ability to recognize endemic typhoid fever and to detect outbreaks. We report a large laboratory-confirmed outbreak of typhoid fever in Uganda with a high proportion of intestinal perforations (IPs).Methods.A suspected case of typhoid fever was defined as fever and abdominal pain in a person with either vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, weakness, arthralgia, poor response to antimalarial medications, or IP. From March 4, 2009 to April 17, 2009, specimens for blood and stool cultures and serology were collected from suspected cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on Salmonella Typhi isolates. Surgical specimens from patients with IP were examined. A community survey was conducted to characterize the extent of the outbreak. Results. From December 27, 2007 to July 30, 2009, 577 cases, 289 hospitalizations, 249 IPs, and 47 deaths from typhoid fever occurred; Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 27 (33%) of 81 patients. Isolates demonstrated multiple PFGE patterns and uniform susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Surgical specimens from 30 patients were consistent with typhoid fever. Estimated typhoid fever incidence in the community survey was 8092 cases per 100 000 persons. Conclusions. This typhoid fever outbreak was detected because of an elevated number of IPs. Underreporting of milder illnesses and delayed and inadequate antimicrobial treatment contributed to the high perforation rate. Enhancing laboratory capacity for detection is critical to improving typhoid fever control. © 2012 The Author.


Dauphin L.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Marston C.K.,NCEZID | Bhullar V.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Baker D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ≥7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


SCHAUMBURG, IL, November 22, 2016-- STOP Foodborne Illness, the Chicago-based national advocacy and education organization, will honor three Food Safety Heroes at an interactive fundraising event 7-9 p.m., Tuesday, December 6 during the Food Safety Consortium at the Renaissance Schaumburg Convention Center (1551 Thoreau Drive N, Schaumburg, IL 60173). The benefit is open to the public.Guests will enjoy live jazz, cocktails and hors d'oeuvres in celebration of three exceptional individuals who have had an impact on making food safer for everyone.Additionally, there will be a silent auction with proceeds going toward STOP Foodborne Illness. Items include a signed baseball from 2016 World Series Champion and National League MVP Kris Bryant; a guitar signed by musical legend Paul McCartney; another guitar signed by Eddie Van Halen; Robert De Niro memorabilia, and more. These keepsakes make great last minute holiday gifts for friends and family and can also be bid on before the event, now through noon on December 5th, online.Tickets are $65 per person and can be purchased here STOP would like to thank Food Safety Tech and Walmart Corporation for sponsoring the evening and for their relentless efforts to make the world a healthier place by raising awareness of food safety and providing safe, quality food for customers.Jeff Almer (of Savage, MN) will be accepting the STOP Foodborne Illness 2016 Legacy Tribute award in memory of his mother, Shirley, who died from Salmonella in 2008. Dr. Robert Tauxe (of Atlanta, GA), director of the CDC's Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases in National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID), will be honored as the STOP Foodborne Illness 2016 Advancing Science for Food Safety Hero. Scott Horsfall (of Sacramento, CA), on behalf of California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA), will be recognized as STOP Foodborne Illness 2016 Excellence in Food Safety Training Heroes. Learn more about the event and the three Food Safety Heroes being honored.STOP Foodborne Illness is a national, nonprofit, public health organization dedicated to preventing illness and death from foodborne pathogens by advocating for sound public policies, building public awareness and assisting those impacted by foodborne illness. For more food safety tips please visit http://www.stopfoodborneillness.org/awareness/ . If you think you have been sickened from food, contact your local health professional.For questions and personal assistance, please contact STOP Foodborne Illness' Community Coordinator, Stanley Rutledge, at srutledge@stopfoodborneillness.org or 773-269-6555 x7.

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