Zang Z.J.,Cellular and Molecular Research |
Zang Z.J.,National University of Singapore |
Ong C.K.,NCCS VARI Translational Cancer Research Laboratory |
Cutcutache I.,National University of Singapore |
And 20 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011
Genetic alterations in kinases have been linked to multiple human pathologies. To explore the landscape of kinase genetic variation in gastric cancer (GC), we used targeted, paired-end deep sequencing to analyze 532 protein and phosphoinositide kinases in 14 GC cell lines. We identified 10,604 single-nucleotide variants (SNV) in kinase exons including greater than 300 novel nonsynonymous SNVs. Family-wise analysis of the nonsynonymous SNVs revealed a significant enrichment in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related genes (P < 0.01), suggesting a preferential involvement of this kinase family in GC. A potential antioncogenic role for MAP2K4, a gene exhibiting recurrent alterations in 2 lines, was functionally supported by siRNA knockdown and overexpression studies in wild-type and MAP2K4 variant lines. The deep sequencing data also revealed novel, large-scale structural rearrangement events involving kinases including gene fusions involving CDK12 and the ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in MKN7 cells. Integrating SNVs and copy number alterations, we identified Hs746T as a cell line exhibiting both splice-site mutations and genomic amplification of MET, resulting in MET protein overexpression. When applied to primary GCs, we identified somatic mutations in 8 kinases, 4 of which were recurrently altered in both primary tumors and cell lines (MAP3K6, STK31, FER, and CDKL5). These results demonstrate that how targeted deep sequencing approaches can deliver unprecedented multilevel characterization of a medically and pharmacologically relevant gene family. The catalog of kinome genetic variants assembled here may broaden our knowledge on kinases and provide useful information on genetic alterations in GC. ©2010 AACR.
Zhang Z.,Van Andel Research Institute |
Zhang Z.,Wistar Institute |
Pang S.-T.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital |
Kasper K.A.,Northwestern University |
And 7 more authors.
Biomarker Insights | Year: 2011
Objective: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the kidney is a relatively rare but aggressive form of kidney cancer. Differential diagnosis of renal UC from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be difficult, but is critical for correct patient management. We aimed to use global gene expression profiling to identify genes specifically expressed in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the kidney, with purpose of finding new biomarkers for differential diagnosis of UC of both upper and lower tract from normal tissues. Materials and methods: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on a variety of human kidney tumor samples, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, oncocytoma, renal UC and normal kidney controls. Differentially expressed mRNAs in various kidney tumor subtypes were thus identified. Protein expression in human UC tumor samples from both upper and lower urinary tract was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: FXYD3 (MAT-8) mRNA was specifically expressed in UC of the kidney and not in normal kidney tissue or in any RCC tumor subtypes. FXYD3 mRNA levels displayed equal or better prediction rate for the detection of renal UC than the mRNA levels of selected known UC markers as p63, vimentin, S100P, KRT20 and KRT7. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of clinical UC samples showed that FXYD3 protein is overexpressed in majority of UC of the upper genitourinary tract (encompassing the kidney, ~90%) and in majority of high grade bladder UC (~84%, it's<40% in low grade tumors, P < 0.001) compared to normal kidney and bladder tissues. Conclusion: FXYD3 may be a promising novel biomarker for the differential diagnosis of renal UC and a promising prognosis marker of UC from bladder. Because it was identified genome-widely, FXYD3 may have important biological ramifications for the genetic study of UC. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.
Ivanova T.,National University of Singapore |
Zouridis H.,National University of Singapore |
Wu Y.,Cellular and Molecular Research |
Cheng L.L.,National University of Singapore |
And 15 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013
Objective: Cisplatin is a widely used gastric cancer (GC) chemotherapy; however, genetic factors regulating GC responses to cisplatin remain obscure. Identifying genes regulating cisplatin resistance could aid clinicians in tailoring treatments, by distinguishing cisplatin sensitive patients from those who might benefit from alternative platinum therapies, and highlight novel targeted strategies for overcoming cisplatin resistance. Here integrated epigenomics is applied to identify genes associated with GC cisplatin resistance. Design: 20 GC cell lines were subjected to gene expression profiling, DNA methylation profiling and drug response assays. The molecular data were integrated to identify genes highly expressed and unmethylated specifically in cisplatin-resistant lines. Candidate genes were functionally tested by several in vitro and in vivo assays. Clinical impact of candidate genes was also assessed in a cohort of 197 GC patients. Results: Epigenomic analysis identified bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 ) as an epigenetically regulated gene highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant lines. Functional assays confirmed that BMP4 is necessary and sufficient for the expression of several prooncogenic traits, likely mediated through stimulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In primary tumours, BMP4 promoter methylation levels were inversely correlated with BMP4 expression, and patients with high BMP4-expressing tumours exhibited significantly worse prognosis. Therapeutically, targeted genetic inhibition of BMP4 caused significant sensitisation of GC cells to cisplatin. Notably, BMP4- expressing GCs also did not exhibit cross resistance to oxaliplatin. Conclusions: BMP4 epigenetic and expression status may represent promising biomarkers for GC cisplatin resistance. Targeting BMP4 may sensitise GC cells to cisplatin. Oxaliplatin, a clinically acceptable cisplatin alternative, may represent a potential therapeutic option for BMP4-positive GCs.
Wu M.,Zunyi Medical University |
Si S.,University of Rochester |
Li Y.,Peking Union Medical College |
Schoen S.,University of Rochester |
And 7 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015
Deficiency of tumor suppressor FLCN leads to the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in human BHD-associated renal cell carcinomas (RCC). We have previously developed a renal distal tubule-collecting duct-Henle's loop-specific Flcn knockout (KO) mouse model (Flcnflox/flox/Ksp-Cre). This mouse model can only survive for three weeks after birth due to the development of polycystic kidney and uremia. Whether these cystic solid hyperplasia changes seen in those KO mice are tumorigenic or malignant is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of Flcn in mouse kidney distal tubule cells could lead to tumorigenic transformation of these cells to develop allograft tumors with an aggressive histologic phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, we showed that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the growth of these Flcn-deficient allograft and human UOK 257-1 xenograft tumors. We further demonstrated that the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, suppresses the tumor's growth, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors might be effective in control of FLCN-deficient RCC, especially in BHD renal tumorigenesis.
Ooi A.,Van Andel Research Institute |
Dykema K.,Van Andel Research Institute |
Ansari A.,Spectrum Health |
Petillo D.,Van Andel Research Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013
Sustained activation of the stress-regulated transcription factor NRF2 (NFE2L2) is a prominent feature of many types of cancer, implying that mutations driving NRF2 may be important to tumor progression. In hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2, also known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer), NRF2 activation is a direct consequence of the accumulation of intracellular fumarate, a result of fumarate hydratase (FH) inactivation, but it is not clear how NRF2 may be activated in sporadic forms of PRCC2. Here we show that somatic mutations in NRF2, CUL3, and SIRT1 are responsible for driving the NRF2 activation phenotype in sporadic PRCC2. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the expression pattern of mutant alleles of NRF2, CUL3, and SIRT1 and also confirmed NRF2 activation in clinical specimens. Our results show a convergence in somatic mutations in sporadic PRCC2 with FH mutation in hereditary PRCC2. © 2012 American Association for Cancer Research.
PubMed | University of Rochester, Zunyi Medical University, NCCS VARI Translational Cancer Research Laboratory and Peking Union Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2015
Deficiency of tumor suppressor FLCN leads to the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in human BHD-associated renal cell carcinomas (RCC). We have previously developed a renal distal tubule-collecting duct-Henles loop-specific Flcn knockout (KO) mouse model (Flcnflox/flox/Ksp-Cre). This mouse model can only survive for three weeks after birth due to the development of polycystic kidney and uremia. Whether these cystic solid hyperplasia changes seen in those KO mice are tumorigenic or malignant is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of Flcn in mouse kidney distal tubule cells could lead to tumorigenic transformation of these cells to develop allograft tumors with an aggressive histologic phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, we showed that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the growth of these Flcn-deficient allograft and human UOK 257-1 xenograft tumors. We further demonstrated that the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, suppresses the tumors growth, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors might be effective in control of FLCN-deficient RCC, especially in BHD renal tumorigenesis.
Dalgliesh G.L.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
Furge K.,Laboratory of Computational Biology |
Greenman C.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
Chen L.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
And 49 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2010
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common form of adult kidney cancer, characterized by the presence of inactivating mutations in the VHL gene in most cases, and by infrequent somatic mutations in known cancer genes. To determine further the genetics of ccRCC, we have sequenced 101 cases through 3,544 protein-coding genes. Here we report the identification of inactivating mutations in two genes encoding enzymes involved in histone modificationg SETD2, a histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase, and JARID1C (also known as KDM5C), a histone H3 lysine 4 demethylaseg as well as mutations in the histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, UTX (KMD6A), that we recently reported. The results highlight the role of mutations in components of the chromatin modification machinery in human cancer. Furthermore, NF2 mutations were found in non-VHL mutated ccRCC, and several other probable cancer genes were identified. These results indicate that substantial genetic heterogeneity exists in a cancer type dominated by mutations in a single gene, and that systematic screens will be key to fully determining the somatic genetic architecture of cancer. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Van Andel Research Institute, Northwestern University, New York University and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Kidney international | Year: 2015
The study of kidney cancer pathogenesis and its treatment has been limited by the scarcity of genetically defined animal models. The FLCN gene that codes for the protein folliculin, mutated in Birt-Hogg-Dub syndrome, presents a new target for mouse modeling of kidney cancer. Here we developed a kidney-specific knockout model by disrupting the mouse Flcn in the proximal tubules, thus avoiding homozygous embryonic lethality or neonatal mortality, and eliminating the requirement of loss of heterozygosity for tumorigenesis. This knockout develops renal cysts and early onset (6 months) of multiple histological subtypes of renal neoplasms featuring high tumor penetrance. Although the majority of the tumors were chromophobe renal cell carcinomas in affected mice under 1 year of age, papillary renal cell carcinomas predominated in the kidneys of older knockout mice. This renal neoplasia from cystic hyperplasia at 4 months to high-grade renal tumors by 16 months represented the progression of tumorigenesis. The mTOR and TGF- signalings were upregulated in Flcn-deficient tumors, and these two activated pathways may synergetically cause renal tumorigenesis. Treatment of knockout mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin for 10 months led to the suppression of tumor growth. Thus, our model recapitulates human Birt-Hogg-Dub kidney tumorigenesis, provides a valuable tool for further study of Flcn-deficient renal tumorigenesis, and tests new drugs/approaches to their treatment.