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Meghzifene A.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Dance D.R.,NCCPM | Dance D.R.,University of Surrey | McLean D.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Kramer H.-M.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2010

Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ullman G.,Linkoping University | Dance D.R.,NCCPM | Sandborg M.,Linkoping University | Carlsson G.A.,Linkoping University | And 4 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to calculate synthetic digital chest tomosynthesis projections using a computer simulation model based on the Monte Carlo method. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was scanned in a computed tomography scanner, segmented and included in the computer model to allow for simulation of realistic high-resolution X-ray images. The input parameters to the model were adapted to correspond to the VolumeRAD chest tomosynthesis system from GE Healthcare. Sixty tomosynthesis projections were calculated with projection angles ranging from +15 to -15°. The images from primary photons were calculated using an analytical model of the anti-scatter grid and a pre-calculated detector response function. The contributions from scattered photons were calculated using an in-house Monte Carlo-based model employing a number of variance reduction techniques such as the collision density estimator. Tomographic section images were reconstructed by transferring the simulated projections into the VolumeRAD system. The reconstruction was performed for three types of images using: (i) noise-free primary projections, (ii) primary projections including contributions from scattered photons and (iii) projections as in (ii) with added correlated noise. The simulated section images were compared with corresponding section images from projections taken with the real, anthropomorphic phantom from which the digital voxel phantom was originally created. The present article describes a work in progress aiming towards developing a model intended for optimisation of chest tomosynthesis, allowing for simulation of both existing and future chest tomosynthesis systems. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Looney P.T.,NCCPM | Young K.C.,NCCPM | Young K.C.,University of Surrey | Halling-Brown M.D.,Scientific Computing
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2016

MedXViewer (Medical eXtensible Viewer) has been developed to address the need for workstation-independent, picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-less viewing and interaction with anonymised medical images. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and features of MedXViewer as well as to introduce the new features available in the latest release (version 1.2). MedXViewer currently supports digital mammography and tomosynthesis. The flexible software design used to develop MedXViewer allows it to be easily extended to support other imaging modalities. Regions of interest can be drawn by a user, and any associated information about a mark, an image or a study can be added. The questions and settings can be easily configured depending on the need of the research allowing both ROC and FROC studies to be performed. Complex tree-like questions can be asked where a given answer presents the user to new questions. The hanging protocol can be specified for each study. Panning, windowing, zooming and moving through slices are all available while modality-specific features can be easily enabled, e.g. quadrant zooming in digital mammography and tomosynthesis studies. MedXViewer can integrate with a web-based image database OPTIMAM Medical Image Database allowing results and images to be stored centrally. The software can, alternatively, run without a network connection where the images and results can be encrypted and stored locally on a machine or external drive. MedXViewer has been used for running remote paper-less observer studies and is capable of providing a training infrastructure and coordinating remote collaborative viewing sessions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Dance D.R.,NCCPM | Dance D.R.,University of Surrey | Young K.C.,NCCPM | Young K.C.,University of Surrey | Van Engen R.E.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

A formalism is proposed for the estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis, which is a simple extension of the UK, European and IAEA protocols for dosimetry in conventional projection mammography. The formalism introduces f-factors for the calculation of breast dose from a single projection and T-factors for a complete exposure series. Monte Carlo calculations of f-factors have been made for an imaging geometry with full-field irradiation of the breast for a wide range of x-ray spectra, breast sizes and glandularities. The f-factors show little dependence on breast glandularity and tables are provided as a function of projection angle and breast thickness, which may be used for all x-ray spectra simulated. The T-factors for this geometry depend upon the choice of projection angles and weights per projection, but various example calculations gave values in the range 0.93-1.00. T-factors are also provided for the Sectra tomosynthesis system, which employs a scanned narrow-beam imaging geometry. In this quite different configuration, the factor (denoted TS) shows an important dependence on breast thickness, varying between 0.98 and 0.76 for 20 and 110 mm thick breasts, respectively. Additional data are given to extend the current tabulations of g-, c-and s-factors used for dosimetry of conventional 2D mammography. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Printed in the UK.

Elangovan P.,University of Surrey | Dance D.R.,NCCPM | Dance D.R.,University of Surrey | Young K.C.,NCCPM | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2016

Virtual clinical trials are an emergent approach for the rapid evaluation and comparison of various breast imaging technologies and techniques using computer-based modeling tools. A fundamental requirement of this approach for mammography is the use of realistic looking breast anatomy in the studies to produce clinically relevant results. In this work, a biologically inspired approach has been used to simulate realistic synthetic breast phantom blocks for use in virtual clinical trials. A variety of high and low frequency features (including Cooper's ligaments, blood vessels and glandular tissue) have been extracted from clinical digital breast tomosynthesis images and used to simulate synthetic breast blocks. The appearance of the phantom blocks was validated by presenting a selection of simulated 2D and DBT images interleaved with real images to a team of experienced readers for rating using an ROC paradigm. The average areas under the curve for 2D and DBT images were 0.53±.04 and 0.55±.07 respectively; errors are the standard errors of the mean. The values indicate that the observers had difficulty in differentiating the real images from simulated images. The statistical properties of simulated images of the phantom blocks were evaluated by means of power spectrum analysis. The power spectrum curves for real and simulated images closely match and overlap indicating good agreement. © 2016 SPIE.

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