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Jansson G.,Lulea University of Technology | Johnsson H.,Lulea University of Technology | Engstrom D.,NCC Construction
Construction Management and Economics

The practice of reusing processes and technical solutions leads to the formation of product platforms in house building. Product platforms originate from industries employing a make-to-order production strategy, e.g. the automotive industry. To test how the product platform concept is useful in engineer-to-order production strategies, a case study at two Swedish house-builders was made. Key factors that affect platform use in systems buildings were sought. The smaller company operates a supplier-led platform focusing on commonalities in process knowledge. There is less definition of the product itself to allow for distinctiveness in the product offer. The larger company has a decentralized business and operates a client-driven platform with fragmented standardization. Focus is put on creating commonality through defining the product and handling distinctiveness through an iterative design procedure. Product families were not in use at the case study companies. The companies transform standardized platform solutions into project uniqueness by using support methods. Four platform support methods emerged from the case studies: design planning, collaborative design, design optimization, and requirements iteration. The balance between commonality and distinctiveness in the platform is important to attend to in each house-building project. The engineer-to-order production strategy hinders the implementation of a fully parameterized platform. The product platform concept is therefore expanded with support methods to handle distinctiveness, i.e. project uniqueness. The product platform assets: components, processes, relationships and knowledge, are present also in platforms used in systems building. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Soderqvist T.,Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy | Brinkhoff P.,NCC Construction | Brinkhoff P.,Chalmers University of Technology | Norberg T.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management

There is an increasing demand amongst decision-makers and stakeholders for identifying sustainable remediation alternatives at contaminated sites, taking into account that remediation typically results in both positive and negative consequences. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is increasingly used for sustainability appraisal, and the Excel-based MCA tool Sustainable Choice Of REmediation (SCORE) has been developed to provide a relevant and transparent assessment of the sustainability of remediation alternatives relative to a reference alternative, considering key criteria in the economic, environmental and social sustainability domains, and taking uncertainty into explicit account through simulation. The focus of this paper is the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a part of SCORE for assessing the economic sustainability of remediation alternatives. An economic model is used for deriving a cost-benefit rule, which in turn motivates cost and benefit items in a CBA of remediation alternatives. The empirical part of the paper is a CBA application on remediation alternatives for the Hexion site, a former chemical industry area close to the city of Göteborg in SW Sweden. The impact of uncertainties in and correlations across benefit and cost items on CBA results is illustrated. For the Hexion site, the traditional excavation-and-disposal remediation alternative had the lowest expected net present value, which illustrates the importance of also considering other alternatives before deciding upon how a remediation should be carried out. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rosen L.,Chalmers University of Technology | Back P.-E.,Swedish Geotechnical Institute | Soderqvist T.,Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy | Norrman J.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

The multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method provides for a comprehensive and transparent basis for performing sustainability assessments. Development of a relevant MCDA-method requires consideration of a number of key issues, e.g. (a) definition of assessment boundaries, (b) definition of performance scales, both temporal and spatial, (c) selection of relevant criteria (indicators) that facilitate a comprehensive sustainability assessment while avoiding double-counting of effects, and (d) handling of uncertainties. Adding to the complexity is the typically wide variety of inputs, including quantifications based on existing data, expert judgements, and opinions expressed in interviews. The SCORE (Sustainable Choice Of REmediation) MCDA-method was developed to provide a transparent assessment of the sustainability of possible remediation alternatives for contaminated sites relative to a reference alternative, considering key criteria in the economic, environmental, and social sustainability domains. The criteria were identified based on literature studies, interviews and focus-group meetings. SCORE combines a linear additive model to rank the alternatives with a non-compensatory approach to identify alternatives regarded as non-sustainable. The key strengths of the SCORE method are as follows: a framework that at its core is designed to be flexible and transparent; the possibility to integrate both quantitative and qualitative estimations on criteria; its ability, unlike other sustainability assessment tools used in industry and academia, to allow for the alteration of boundary conditions where necessary; the inclusion of a full uncertainty analysis of the results, using Monte Carlo simulation; and a structure that allows preferences and opinions of involved stakeholders to be openly integrated into the analysis. A major insight from practical application of SCORE is that its most important contribution may be that it initiates a process where criteria otherwise likely ignored are addressed and openly discussed between stakeholders. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brinkhoff P.,NCC Construction | Norin M.,NCC Engineering | Norrman J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Rosen L.,Chalmers University of Technology | Ek K.,NCC Construction

Probabilistic economic analysis, including uncertainty of probabilities and consequences of project risks, is not widely used in remediation projects. This article presents a project risk assessment (PRA) method to identify, quantify, and analyze risks in remediation projects. The suggested method is probabilistic and includes uncertainty analysis of input variables based on expert judgment. It was originally developed as a part of a sustainability assessment tool, but is viable as a stand-alone tool for remediation projects. The method is applied to a case study: a former paint factory that is being redeveloped into a residential area. The PRA method is used for analyzing and comparing the project risks associated with four remediation options, all including excavation but with different degrees of onsite treatment. The result of the case study application shows which alternative has the lowest mean risk cost, the highest probability to have the lowest risk cost, and how the risk costs are distributed, but also, importantly, helps the user to prioritize between risk-reduction measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals. Source

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