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Holeby, Denmark

Almquist C.,Eurofins | Almquist C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Persson L.,NBR Nordic Beet Research | Olsson A.,NBR Nordic Beet Research | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Sugar beet root rot, caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces cochlioides, is a serious and economically important disease of sugar beets world-wide. Today, disease risk assessment consists of a time-consuming greenhouse bioassay using bait plants. In the present study, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for determination of A. cochlioides DNA in field-infested soil samples was developed and validated using the standard bioassay. The qPCR assay proved to be species-specific and was optimized to give high amplification efficiency suitable for target copy quantification. A high correlation (R2 > 0.98, p < 0.001) with pathogen inoculum density was shown, demonstrating the suitability for monitoring soil samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated in several different soil types and varied between 1 and 50 oospores/g soil, depending on clay content. Soils with a high LOD were characterised as having a low clay content and high content of sand. Varying levels of the A. cochlioides target sequence were detected in 20 of the 61 naturally infested soil samples. Discrepancies between the bioassay and the qPCR assay were found in soils from low- and medium-risk fields. However, the qPCR diagnostic assay provides a potentially valuable new tool in disease risk assessment, enabling sugar beet growers to identify high-risk fields. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

Wieczorek T.M.,University of Aarhus | Wieczorek T.M.,Copenhagen University | Jorgensen L.N.,University of Aarhus | Hansen A.L.,NBR Nordic Beet Research | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from spores trapped on tape from Burkard spore traps placed in an artificially inoculated sugar beet field trial and in two sugar beet fields with natural infections. R. beticola DNA was detected at variable amounts in the air samples 14 to 16 days prior to first visible symptoms. R. beticola DNA was detected in air samples from fields with natural infection at significant and increasing levels from development of the first symptoms, indicating that spore production within the crop plays a major role in the epidemic development of the disease. Sugar beet leaves sampled from the inoculated field trial were also tested with the qPCR assay. It was possible to detect the presence of R. beticola in the leaves pre-symptomatic at least 10 days before the occurrence of the visible symptoms of Ramularia leaf spot. This is the first report of a molecular assay, which allows screening for the presence of R. beticola in plant material and in air samples prior to the appearance of visible symptoms. An early detection has potential as a tool, which can be part of a warning system predicting the onset of the disease in the sugar beet crop and helping to optimise fungicide application. © 2013 KNPV.

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