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Delhi, India
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Roy S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR | Rathi R.S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR | Misra A.K.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR | Bhatt B.P.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2014

Nagaland is one of the eight states in the north-eastern region of India, where a considerable diversity exists in cultivated rice. Recent exploration in this tribal-dominated state has resulted in a collection of 130 rice accessions growing under diverse agroecological conditions. The agromorphological characterization data of 124 rice landraces revealed a significant variability in plant architecture and grain morphological and quality traits. Multivariate analyses including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were performed to assess the patterns of morphological variation. The PCA extracted 12 components, which explained 75.4% of the total variation for 38 quantitative and qualitative traits. The cluster analysis grouped 124 rice landraces into five clusters, and the number of landraces in each cluster ranged from 1 to 59. The correlations among the traits are discussed, which will be useful in considering traits for genetic improvement in grain yield and quality. The landraces have been conserved in the national genebank for further utilization. © 2013 NIAB.


Rana J.C.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources Regional Station | Dutta M.,NBPGR | Rathi R.S.,NBPGR Regional Station
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

The Indian Himalayan region houses wide array of plant genetic resources due to its diverse climatic conditions. India's recognition as a 'mega-biodiversity' country derives partly from the Himalayas wherein out of 6000 endemic plant species, 2532 species occur. Major genera for which rich diversity exists are-Oryza, Avena, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Fagopyrum, Allium, Hordeum, Linum, Saccarum, Citrus, Musa, Pyrus, Prunus, Rubus, Fragaria, Sorbus, Rosa,Lilium, Vicia, Lepidium, Lathyrus, Dioscorea, Orchids, Cucumis, Solanum, and Trichosanthes, Bamboos and Canes. These plant species and varieties have contributed significantly to food and environment security of the hill people. It also provides stability to the food production systems by minimising crop losses due to diseases, insect pests and weather odds. Besides, there are several wild relatives possess genes for various purposes and has lot of breeding value. Despite that, the most distressing situation is that many of these valuable genetic resources are eroding at very high rate. The crops, folk varieties and landraces of local importance adapted to specific micro-climatic niches are being replaced by a few high yielding varieties and cash crops. Nonetheless, appreciable amount of diversity has been collected and being conserved ex situ by different institutions particularly the NBPGR and NAGS. Nearly, 300 cropspecific and multi-crops exploration trips have been undertaken and more than 30,000 germplasm accessions of various agri-horticultural crops including some of their wild relative have been assembled from Himalayan region while around 6000 have been introduced from exotic sources.


Swain D.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Lenka S.,NBPGR | Hota T.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Rout G.R.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Nucleus (India) | Year: 2016

An efficient in vitro protocol was established for mass production of. Hypericum gaitii Haines, an important medicinal plant. Multiple shoots were induced from apical and axillary meristems on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0–3.0 mg/l 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) or Kinetin and 3 % (w/v) sucrose. Inclusion of 0.5 mg/l 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in the culture medium to enhance the rate of shoot elongation and multiplication. The rate of multiplication was higher when the cultures were incubated under 16 h photoperiod rather than the continuous light. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the microshoots onto full strength MS basal semi-solid medium supplemented with 0.5–1.0 mg/l IBA after 15 days of culture. Medium having NAA along with BAP did not show the induction of rooting. Micro-propagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully grown in soil mixture. About 50 % of micropropagated plantlets were hardened in the polyhouse and successfully established in the soil. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat DNA marker was used to detect the variability among the micropropagated plants developed through in vitro. The results showed that there was no polymorphism among the micropropagated plants. Further study is necessary to enhance the survivality rate of in vitro raised plantlets of Hypericum gaitii for commercialization. © 2015, Archana Sharma Foundation of Calcutta.


Deswal R.P.S.,Regional Research Station | Panwar N.S.,NBPGR | Rawat L.,ICFRE | Bangarwa K.S.,Ch Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Karanj mature pods were collected from the three states viz. Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan in two consecutive years 2009 and 2010. Intra-cluster average D2 value of cluster V was minimum (1.238) thus revealed the minimum genetic diversity and cluster IV had maximum (2.471), which indicated the existence of maximum genetic diversity. The average Inter cluster D 2 value between cluster IV and V was maximum (7.176), whereas, the minimum Inter-cluster average D2 value was in cluster I and V (2.514). The genotypes which had highest cluster means and showed higher inter-cluster divergence with several other characters would be considered as putative parents for hybridization. Hybridization among genotypes of the same cluster may not provide a good scope for obtaining useful segregates.


Bhawna,NBPGR | Bhawna,Jamia Hamdard University | Abdin M.Z.,Jamia Hamdard University | Arya L.,NBPGR | And 4 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Genetic diversity analysis was undertaken in 42 geographically distant genotypes accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) from India northeastern (14) and northern region (28) using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 209 amplified bands were obtained from 20 ISSR primers used in this study, of which 186 were polymorphic with 89.00 % band polymorphism. Various parameters namely, observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity/heterozygosity, resolving power, Shannon's information index and gene flow were estimated under experiment. Jaccard's similarity coefficient matrix was generated for pairwise comparisons between individual ISSR profiles and UPGMA cluster analysis based on this matrix showed clustering into six groups. Jaccard's coefficient of similarity values ranged from 0.409 to 0.847, with a mean of 0.628 revealing a moderate level of genetic diversity. The Bayesian model-based approach to infer hidden genetic population structures using the multilocus ISSR markers revealed two populations among the 42 genotypes. This is the first report on the assessment of genetic variation using ISSR markers in this medicinal vegetable plant, and this study of diversity analysis will be helpful in analyzing future hybrid breeding strategy and devising effective germplasm exploration and conservation strategy. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Arun Kumar M.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dadlani M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jacob S.R.,NBPGR
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Farmers can harness the full potential of any hybrid only when they get genetically pure seeds of the hybrid. Hence, ensuring the genetic purity of certified seeds of brinjal hybrids is mandatory in India, which is done through field grow out test (GOT) based on the morphological characters of plants grown to maturity. GOT being land and labour intensive, time consuming and influenced by the environment, there is a need to identify rapid and reliable alternatives like DNA based assays. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to identify the SSR markers that could be used to test the genetic purity of three popular brinjal hybrids (viz., PH-5, PH-9 and Kashi Komal). Among 30 SSR markers studied, six markers were found to be suitable for testing the purity of these hybrids. The analysis of plant-to-plant variation within the parental lines of all the hybrids, using the identified hybrid specific markers, showed highly homogenous SSR profile, which further indicated the scope of application of these markers in maintenance and purity testing of hybrids and parental lines. Multiplexing of 2 polymorphic markers differentiated all the hybrids from each other, which can be used as referral markers for unambiguous identification, seed purity testing and protection of the hybrids. The validation of the identified markers in commercial seed lots of hybrids PH-5 and PH-9 revealed admixture of selfed seeds, which was confirmed through GOT. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Kundu M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dubey A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Srivastav M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Malik S.,NBPGR | Singh B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2014

The present work analyzed the stainability and in vitro germinability of the gamma-ray-irradiated fresh and cryopreserved pollens of 3 Citrus species: C. limon, C. limetta, and C. sinensis. Fruit set after pollinating 75 flowers of C. grandis with irradiated and nonirradiated (control) fresh and cryopreserved pollen was also assessed. Results showed that in solid and liquid culture media the highest in vitro germination values were detected in fresh (61.45% and 62.53%, respectively) as well as cryopreserved (53.17% and 55.36%, respectively) C. sinensis nonirradiated pollens. However, at a higher irradiation dose of 500 Gy in both culture media, the minimum reduction of germinability of fresh (30.85% and 28.01%) and cryopreserved pollens (33.37% and 31.06%) was found in C. limon. Contrary to in vitro germination, the minimum reduction in stainability of fresh and cryopreserved pollens, as assessed by acetocarmine (9.51% and 11.85%, respectively) and FDA tests (10.78% and 12.73%, respectively), was recorded in C. limetta. Regardless of irradiation dose, the highest fruit setting in C. grandis at 40 days after pollination was detected when it was pollinated with both fresh (38.02%) and cryopreserved (34.92%) C. limetta pollen grains. © TÜBİTAK.


Mawlong I.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ali K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kurup D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Yadav S.,NBPGR | Tyagi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

A genomic DNA fragment of 964 bp corresponding to AP2/ERF family transcription factor was isolated from drought tolerant Oryza sativa L. cv. 'N-22' (AP2/ERF-'N-22') and Oryza sativa L. cv. 'Teipei 309' (AP2/ERF-jap). The cDNA sequence of AP2/ERF-'N-22' (732 bp) was amplified using gene specific primers. The gene contains two exons and a single intron. The deduced protein of the AP2/ERF-'N-22' contains a potential nuclear localization signal, a possible regulation domain and an AP2 DNA binding domain of 60 amino acids. Northern and RT-PCR analysis showed that transcript of AP2/ERF-'N-22' accumulates in response to WDS and the Southern analysis indicated the presence of single copy of AP2/ERF-'N-22' gene in Oryza sativa genome. Phylogenetic analysis of AP2/ERF family revealed that AP2/ERF-'N-22' belongs to group Va along with SHN clade of AP2/ERF protein which activates wax biosynthesis. A higher epicuticular wax content was observed at decreased RWC and positively correlated with AP2/ERF-'N-22' expression. © 2012 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.


Abdin M.Z.,Jamia Hamdard University | Arya L.,NBPGR | Ram C.,NBPGR | Sureja A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Verma M.,NBPGR
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Bottle gourd [. Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] is an easy growing climber that has made great impact due to its medicinal importance. For estimating genetic diversity among accessions in breeding programs, SSR markers are an essential tool, but for the species that have meager number of these markers available, their development is a challenging aspect. In the present study a microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype 'Pusa Santushti'. Sequencing of 100 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 220 clones provided 44 SSR repeats and primer pairs could be designed for a total of 40 SSRs. Of these, 30 (75%) primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons and seven (17.5%) primers showed polymorphism among 40 bottle gourd accessions. The 20 polymorphic alleles from seven polymorphic markers were used for UPGMA dendrogram and population structure analysis; both revealed that five populations are present in the 40 accessions that did not group consistent with their geographical origins probably due to gene flow. The results of this study provide 30 novel SSR markers that would be valuable in agriculture via plant breeding, phylogenetic relationships, cultivar identification and linkage mapping in cultivated bottle gourd as well as related cucurbits species. Significantly, 49 partial genome sequences were also isolated that can be helpful in further gene based studies in this vegetable crop. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Bhawna,NBPGR | Bhawna,Jamia Hamdard University | Abdin M.Z.,Jamia Hamdard University | Arya L.,NBPGR | Verma M.,NBPGR
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon’s information index, and Nei’s coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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