Astana, Kazakhstan
Astana, Kazakhstan

Nazarbayev University is an autonomous research university located in Astana, the national capital of Kazakhstan. Founded as a result of the personal initiative of the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, it is an English-medium institution, with an international faculty and staff. The acceptance rate for undergraduate programs is 1:8.5. All undergraduate students attend the university free of charge, and students in good standing receive a stipend, while the faculty-to-student class ratio is 1:9.Nazarbayev University is legally linked to both the Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools and the Nazarbayev Endowment Fund, all of which are dedicated to promoting educational reform in Kazakhstan. Wikipedia.

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Mussard M.,Nazarbayev University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Solar energy has seen tremendous development in recent years towards fulfilling the energy requirements of our planet. This paper presents an extensive review of solar-energy-based technologies and research work conducted under cold climatic conditions. These conditions include mountainous, continental, cold oceanic and polar climates and in general, all climates where below Zero temperatures are common during the winter. This article describes the use of solar energy under cold conditions from various aspects: greenhouses, buildings and housing, heat pumps, heat storage, PV panels, solar thermal and PV/T, high-latitude issues, cooling, and policies. Both environmental and economic aspects are considered in this paper, and the zones covered more or less intensively are Central and Northern Europe, North America, Turkey, Iran, China, Japan, the Andes and Antarctica. This analysis shows that, for most cold climatic conditions, it is worth implementing solar energy technologies for certain uses. However, many parameters need to be carefully considered before concluding on the relevance of a given technology. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-11-2015 | Award Amount: 2.36M | Year: 2016

The European Union has made a major start articulating the relevance of cultural and science for its external relations. What has yet to be done, however, is to make explicit the assumptions underpinning much of this work on cultural and science diplomacy and to codify and articulate it as part of a systematic and strategic approach to understanding the direction of travel of science and cultural diplomacy that locates developments in these fields within the evolving global and EU external relations context. EL-CSID will do this, with the added ambition to identify how the Union and its member states might collectively and individually develop a good institutional and strategic policy environment for extra-regional culture and science diplomacy. Hence, the over-arching objectives of this proposed project are threefold: 1) To detail and analyse the manner in which the EU operates in the domains of cultural and science diplomacy in the current era; comparing its bilateral and multilateral cultural and science ties between states, regions, and public and private international organisations. 2) To examine the degree to which cultural and science diplomacy can enhance the interests of the EU in the contemporary world order and to identify: (a) How cultural and science diplomacy can contribute to Europes standing as an international actor; (b) Opportunities offered by enhanced coordination and collaboration amongst the EU, its members and their extra-European partners; and (c) Constraints posed by economic and socio-political factors affecting the evolving operating environments of both science and cultural diplomacy. 3) To identify a series of mechanisms/platforms to raise awareness among relevant stakeholders of the importance of science and culture as vehicles for enhancing the EUs external relations. The research will generate both scholarly work and policy-oriented output which will be disseminated through an extensive and targeted dissemination programme.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IAPP | Award Amount: 2.41M | Year: 2013

This project aims to develop novel materials and technologies for remediation of contaminated soils and groudwaters from xenobiotics (e.g. man-made) contaminants, via a programme of knowledge exchange and scientific work actions between 8 partner organisations (6 from three EU countries and 2 from an ICPC country). Chemical and biological approaches will be combined to develop novel technologies for removal of toxic metals/metalloids and recalcitrant organic contaminants from contaminated soil and groundwaters. A range of methods, based on iron chemistry and biogeochemistry, bioremediation and electrochemical oxidation will be employed at laboratory and pilot/field scale, to produce integrated clean-up solutions for problem contaminated sites and contaminants. The project brings together a multidisciplinary consortium of specialists from different areas of contaminated land management, environmental (geo)chemistry, nanotechnology, (geo)microbiology and physical, analytical, synthetic, polymer and surface chemistry, working with a common aim of developing new and efficient methods of contaminant removal from soils, and groundwaters.

James A.P.,Nazarbayev University | Dasarathy B.V.,Information Fusion Consultant
Information Fusion | Year: 2014

Medical image fusion is the process of registering and combining multiple images from single or multiple imaging modalities to improve the imaging quality and reduce randomness and redundancy in order to increase the clinical applicability of medical images for diagnosis and assessment of medical problems. Multi-modal medical image fusion algorithms and devices have shown notable achievements in improving clinical accuracy of decisions based on medical images. This review article provides a factual listing of methods and summarizes the broad scientific challenges faced in the field of medical image fusion. We characterize the medical image fusion research based on (1) the widely used image fusion methods, (2) imaging modalities, and (3) imaging of organs that are under study. This review concludes that even though there exists several open ended technological and scientific challenges, the fusion of medical images has proved to be useful for advancing the clinical reliability of using medical imaging for medical diagnostics and analysis, and is a scientific discipline that has the potential to significantly grow in the coming years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hussain S.,Nazarbayev University
NeuroRehabilitation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Robot assisted gait training is a rapidly evolving rehabilitation practice. Various robotic orthoses have been developed during the past two decades for the gait training of patients suffering from neurologic injuries. These robotic orthoses can provide systematic gait training and reduce the work load of physical therapists. Biomechanical gait parameters can also be recorded and analysed more precisely as compared to manual physical therapy. OBJECTIVES: A review of robotic orthoses developed for providing gait training of neurologically impaired patients is provided in this paper. METHODS: Recent developments in the mechanism design and actuation methods of these robotic gait training orthoses are presented. Control strategies developed for these robotic gait training orthoses in the recent years are also discussed in detail. These control strategies have the capability to provide customised gait training according to the disability level and stage of rehabilitation of neurologically impaired subjects. RESULTS: A detailed discussion regarding the mechanism design, actuation and control strategies with potential developments and improvements is provided at the end of the paper. CONCLUSIONS: A number of robotic orthoses and novel control strategies have been developed to provide gait training according to the disability level of patients and have shown encouraging results. There is a need to develop improved robotic mechanisms, actuation methods and control strategies that can provide naturalistic gait patterns, safe human-robot interaction and customized gait training, respectively. Extensive clinical trials need to be carried out to ascertain the efficacy of these robotic rehabilitation orthoses. © 2014 -IOS Press and the authors.

Whitby R.L.D.,Nazarbayev University | Whitby R.L.D.,University of Brighton
ACS Nano | Year: 2014

Single layer graphene and graphene oxide feature useful and occasionally unique properties by virtue of their two-dimensional structure. Given that there is a strong correlation between graphene architecture and its conductive, mechanical, chemical, and sorptive properties, which lead to useful technologies, the ability to systematically deform graphene into three-dimensional structures, therefore, provides a controllable, scalable route toward tailoring such properties in the final system. However, the advent of chemical methods to control graphene architecture is still coming to fruition and requires focused attention. The flexibility of the graphene system and the direct and indirect methods available to induce morphology changes of graphene sheets are first discussed in this review. Focus is then given toward chemical reactions that influence the shape of presynthesized graphene and graphene oxide sheets, from which a toolbox can be extrapolated and used in controlling the spatial arrangement of graphene sheets within composite materials and ultimately tailoring graphene-based device performance. Finally, the properties of three-dimensionally controlled graphene-based systems are highlighted for their use as batteries, strengthening additives, gas or liquid sorbents, chemical reactor platforms, and supercapacitors. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

At the intersection of the late 20th century and early 21 st century, a worldwide challenge began to emerge-how can the quality of life be improved for a steadily increasing elderly population. It is well known that elderly patients show increased susceptibility to infections and a higher incidence of co-morbidity rates. Older adults frequently demonstrate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes promoting adverse drug reactions and complications. Analysis of world literature and practical observations indicate that new approaches are required in gerontology and geriatric medicine due to recent significant advances in biomedical science. Global interdisciplinary approaches to improve medical science and medical care services for growing elderly population are indicated. This global, interdisciplinary initiative should integrate select, tangible clinical results achieved in leading research centers and universities that are applicable in the field of geriatrics and helpful to geriatricians. Among past scientific and clinically significant study results in the field of biomedicine, one must consider targeted drug delivery systems (DDS), which are designed to minimize drug side effects, increase the efficacy of drugs, and prolong and target drug interactions with particular pathological foci in sick patients. Many review articles focus on various methods of drug encapsulation and pharmacokinetics, but not on developing clinical modalities. This article attempts to further the discussion with researchers and clinicians from various fields, as well as to encourage comprehensive and elderly patient-oriented research focused on clinical implementation of DDS, especially erythrocyte-based DDS. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Ruderman A.,Nazarbayev University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2015

Many recent multilevel inverter papers end up with voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) values obtained from numerical voltage spectrum calculations (measurements). Motivated by IEEE Standard 519, a part of the multilevel research community uses a limited harmonic count to evaluate the multilevel voltage quality. First, this causes significant voltage THD underestimation, particularly for relatively high frequency PWM. Second, for a three-phase star-connected balanced load with an isolated neutral and phase symmetric modulation strategy, the calculated load line and phase voltage THD become different. However, simple considerations show that line and phase voltage THDs are essentially the same in this case. It may be difficult to judge about the multilevel voltage quality given a numerically calculated (measured) voltage THD value that may be subject to computation errors. Presented are simple smooth hyperbolic voltage THD upper and lower bound approximations for single- and three-phase inverters with nearest synchronous switching. They are valid for arbitrary modulation indices and uniformly distributed level counts and may practically serve as good reference values. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Nazarbayev University | Date: 2016-09-14

The invention relates to the electrochemical industry, in particular, to aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Objective of the invention: development of batteries with a low cost, environmentally safe, providing a reliable work, a high capacity and a long service life. The technical result of the invention is to improve operational performances of the battery, in particular, to reduce corrosive properties of an electrolyte providing a reliability, a growth of its service life and environmental safety. This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the invention are used an intercalation cathode, a metallic and/or electroconductive inert anode separated by a separator with a subacid solution of the electrolyte with pH 4-5 comprising at least two types of electrochemically active cations, and represented by a combination of one or a quantity of electrochemical elements each of which includes: the metallic anode from zinc, aluminum or another metal from a range of transition metals or the inert anode from stainless steel, carbon, nickel or copper; the cathode from oxides and salts of lithium, sodium, magnesium or other alkaline or alkaline earth metals with manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel and other transition metals, for example: LiCoPO_(4), LiMnPO_(4), LiFePO_(4), LiMn_(2)O_(4), LiCoO_(2), LiMn_(1/3)Ni_(1/3)O_(4) and/or their mixtures.

Nazarbayev University | Date: 2014-01-30

A lithium-ion battery includes a cell placed into an electrically non-conducting box filled with an electrolyte. The cell includes an intercalation cathode and an electroconductive anode separated from each other by a porous separator. The cell is submerged into the electrolyte. The electrolyte includes an aqueous solution of metals salts. The aqueous solution includes metals ions of the metals salts. A pH value of the aqueous solution being adapted to prevent a hydrolysis of the metal ions in the electrolyte.

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