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Watson A.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Buentello A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Place A.R.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Fishmeal (FM) replacement in diets for intensive aquaculture has become a high priority area for the global aquaculture industry. In this study, a twelve week growth trial was conducted with juvenile cobia (18. g initial weight) to examine the effects of non-genetically modified soybean meals as potential replacement protein sources. Genetically modified (GM) crops and their intended and unintended effects have become major topics of controversy worldwide, with several regions banning their use in food and feeds. Therefore, it is especially critical to develop and evaluate non-GM feedstuffs for use in aquaculture diets where GM products are prohibited as the global aquaculture industry continues its expansion to meet increasing demands.Navita Premium Feed Ingredients (NPFI's) 3010 solvent extracted meal and 3032 cold-pressed cake meal were utilized to replace 50, 60 or 70% and 40, 50, or 60% of FM protein, respectively and were compared to a FM based reference formulation. None of the experimental diets performed significantly different from the reference diet in terms of weight gain (WG) or specific growth rate (SGR). However the 3010 50% diet performed significantly better than the 3032 50 and 60% diets in regard to WG, SGR, and protein efficiency.There were no significant differences between the seven diets at the conclusion of the trial in regard to their effects on filet quality as determined by organoleptic testing. These two non-GM soybean protein sources appear to be valuable FM replacement options for juvenile cobia, with none of the typical indicators of intestinal enteritis developing as has been observed in various other teleost species when high quantities of commodity soybean meal have been utilized. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Anuta J.D.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Buentello A.,Texas A&M University | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Patnaik S.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2016

A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic Previda®. Diets were formulated to contain Previda® at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.6 g kg-1 by weight. At the end of the study, differences in weight gain and survival among treatments were not significant (P > 0.05), but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial communities in the GIT changed significantly with the inclusion of dietary Previda® at different levels. Previda® was therefore able to selectively modify the microbial communities in the shrimp's GIT. Although individual bacterial species were not identified, enteric populations in shrimp fed the prebiotic at similar levels of inclusion were genetically similar. In addition, shrimp fed Previda® at 1.6 g kg-1 responded significantly (P < 0.05) better immunologically with respect to hemocyte phagocytic capacity, haemolymph protein, hyaline cell counts and haemolymph glucose compared with shrimp fed the basal diet. Although shrimp were not exposed to virulent pathogens in this study, the observed upregulation of some of imm-une responses upon prebiotic supplementation indicates that an improved outcome of such challenges may be anticipated in Previda®-fed shrimp under commercial conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gold J.R.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi | Willis S.C.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi | Renshaw M.A.,University of Notre Dame | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | And 4 more authors.
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2015

A total of 2,206 base pairs of coding sequences of mitochondrial DNA from nine of 10 lutjanine (Lutjanidae) species endemic to the eastern Pacific Ocean were used in a phylogenetic analysis to infer species relationships among lutjanines on either side of the Isthmus of Panama. Monotypic Hoplopagrus (guentherii) appears to be at the base of all lutjanines assayed to date and represents the first of five, eastward dispersal events of lutjanines from the Indo-Pacific to the Americas. Diversification of lutjanines in the Americas appears to have occurred primarily in the western Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea) and been aided by an early Miocene eastward-flowing current and by more optimal lutjanine habitat in the warmer Caribbean waters. Five geminate species pairs in five, strongly supported clades were identified. In three, the trans-isthmian geminate species in the eastern Pacific belonged to clades in which basal and other members of the clade are endemic to the western Atlantic, suggesting that the ancestor to each species geminate pair dispersed westward into the eastern Pacific prior to closure of connections between the two oceans; the opposite occurred in one of the clades. The fifth clade contained only two species, one on either side of the Isthmus. Diversification in life-history and other traits in each geminate species pair appears to have been slight. Five lutjanine species possessing horizontal blue stripes (the blue-lined complex) and distributed from the western Indian Ocean to the eastern Pacific formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade. The lone blue-lined species in the eastern Pacific (Lutjanus viridis) could be conspecific with its highly dispersive sister species (Lutjanus kasmira) from the Indo-Pacific. The chronology of lutjanine diversification and closure of seawater exchange between the two oceans is briefly discussed. © The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London 2015. All Rights Reserved.

Zhou Y.-G.,Auburn University | Davis D.A.,Auburn University | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of eight sources (designated A-H) of soybean meal (SBM) which included six new non-genetically modified soya varieties in practical feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using both growth and digestibility trials. A soybean meal-based reference diet was formulated using conventional soybean meal (527 g kg-1 diet), which was then replaced on an isonitrogenous basis with various other experimental soybean meals. In a 6-week growth trial, shrimp in four replicate tanks per dietary treatment (10 shrimp per tank, initial weight 0.52 ± 0.04 g) were cultured in a recirculating system. There were no significant differences with respects to per cent weight gain and survival across all dietary treatments; however, final weights and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower in shrimp offered diet 3. Apparent digestibility coefficients for the eight (A-H) different soybean meals were determined in L. vannamei for dry matter (ADMD), gross energy (ADE) and crude protein (ADP) using 10 g kg-1 chromic oxide as inert marker with 70 : 30 replacement techniques. Coefficients ranged from 71.3% to 88.3%, from 76.6% to 91.3% and from 93.6% to 99.8%, for ADMD, ADE and ADP, respectively. Improved digestibility values were observed in soybean C which was characterized by crude protein (471 g kg-1), crude fat (97 g kg-1), low cooking temperature (180 °C), higher nitrogen solubility index (689 g kg-1) and protein dispersibility index (619 g kg-1). This indicates that new lines of soybean meal can be used to improve digestibility coefficients in shrimp feeds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Suarez J.A.,University of Miami | Tudela C.,University of Miami | Davis D.,University of Miami | Daugherty Z.,University of Miami | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

A constraint for the expansion of cobia aquaculture is the availability of high quality formulated diets which reduce or eliminate fish meal (FM) protein. Therefore, the nutritive value of a novel soybean cultivar, Navita™ (Navita, non-genetically modified and selectively bred soy), and regular, commodity soybean meal (SBM, de-hulled, defatted, roasted and solvent-extracted) was evaluated for cobia, Rachycentron canadum via separate digestibility and growth trials. In the first experiment Navita's apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were higher than those of SBM for nearly every nutrient evaluated. Crude protein ADCs were 82 and 69% for Navita and SBM, respectively. Apparent DC for amino acids ranged from 68 to 109% for Navita whereas, amino acid ADCs for SBM varied from 42 to 98%. The feeding trial utilized fish of a size that more closely resembles commercial cobia stocking (1.8. kg), and was conducted over a 91-day period. Experimental diets (iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic) were formulated such that 67% of the FM protein in the reference diet was replaced by either a combination of SBM. +. soy protein concentrate (SPC, Solae Profine®) labeled MXSB-diet, or by a combination of SPC. +. Navita; Navita-diet, hereafter. A fourth experimental diet had 80% of the FM protein replaced by a combination of Navita. +. SPC and was identified as Navita-high. No significant differences (P>. 0.05) were observed in fish fed the experimental diets for feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency, mean daily intake, gross protein intake, gross energy intake, visceral somatic index, muscle ratio, and hepatosomatic index. Fish fed the Navita-high diet had the lowest fish in:fish out ratio (FIFO) at 0.9. ±. 0.16. These results indicate that Navita meal can be incorporated at very high levels in the diet of marine carnivorous fish such as cobia with no detriment to performance, making it a prime candidate for FM replacement in aquafeeds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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