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Anuta J.D.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Buentello A.,Texas A&M University | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Patnaik S.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2016

A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic Previda®. Diets were formulated to contain Previda® at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.6 g kg-1 by weight. At the end of the study, differences in weight gain and survival among treatments were not significant (P > 0.05), but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial communities in the GIT changed significantly with the inclusion of dietary Previda® at different levels. Previda® was therefore able to selectively modify the microbial communities in the shrimp's GIT. Although individual bacterial species were not identified, enteric populations in shrimp fed the prebiotic at similar levels of inclusion were genetically similar. In addition, shrimp fed Previda® at 1.6 g kg-1 responded significantly (P < 0.05) better immunologically with respect to hemocyte phagocytic capacity, haemolymph protein, hyaline cell counts and haemolymph glucose compared with shrimp fed the basal diet. Although shrimp were not exposed to virulent pathogens in this study, the observed upregulation of some of imm-une responses upon prebiotic supplementation indicates that an improved outcome of such challenges may be anticipated in Previda®-fed shrimp under commercial conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Anuta J.D.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Patnaik S.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Mustafa A.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2014

A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic Previda®. Diets were formulated to contain Previda® at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.6 g kg-1 by weight. At the end of the study, differences in weight gain and survival among treatments were not significant (P > 0.05), but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial communities in the GIT changed significantly with the inclusion of dietary Previda® at different levels. Previda® was therefore able to selectively modify the microbial communities in the shrimp's GIT. Although individual bacterial species were not identified, enteric populations in shrimp fed the prebiotic at similar levels of inclusion were genetically similar. In addition, shrimp fed Previda® at 1.6 g kg-1 responded significantly (P < 0.05) better immunologically with respect to hemocyte phagocytic capacity, haemolymph protein, hyaline cell counts and haemolymph glucose compared with shrimp fed the basal diet. Although shrimp were not exposed to virulent pathogens in this study, the observed upregulation of some of imm-une responses upon prebiotic supplementation indicates that an improved outcome of such challenges may be anticipated in Previda®-fed shrimp under commercial conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Gold J.R.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi | Willis S.C.,Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi | Renshaw M.A.,University of Notre Dame | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | And 4 more authors.
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2015

A total of 2,206 base pairs of coding sequences of mitochondrial DNA from nine of 10 lutjanine (Lutjanidae) species endemic to the eastern Pacific Ocean were used in a phylogenetic analysis to infer species relationships among lutjanines on either side of the Isthmus of Panama. Monotypic Hoplopagrus (guentherii) appears to be at the base of all lutjanines assayed to date and represents the first of five, eastward dispersal events of lutjanines from the Indo-Pacific to the Americas. Diversification of lutjanines in the Americas appears to have occurred primarily in the western Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea) and been aided by an early Miocene eastward-flowing current and by more optimal lutjanine habitat in the warmer Caribbean waters. Five geminate species pairs in five, strongly supported clades were identified. In three, the trans-isthmian geminate species in the eastern Pacific belonged to clades in which basal and other members of the clade are endemic to the western Atlantic, suggesting that the ancestor to each species geminate pair dispersed westward into the eastern Pacific prior to closure of connections between the two oceans; the opposite occurred in one of the clades. The fifth clade contained only two species, one on either side of the Isthmus. Diversification in life-history and other traits in each geminate species pair appears to have been slight. Five lutjanine species possessing horizontal blue stripes (the blue-lined complex) and distributed from the western Indian Ocean to the eastern Pacific formed a strongly supported monophyletic clade. The lone blue-lined species in the eastern Pacific (Lutjanus viridis) could be conspecific with its highly dispersive sister species (Lutjanus kasmira) from the Indo-Pacific. The chronology of lutjanine diversification and closure of seawater exchange between the two oceans is briefly discussed. © The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London 2015. All Rights Reserved.


Watson A.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Buentello A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Place A.R.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

Fishmeal (FM) replacement in diets for intensive aquaculture has become a high priority area for the global aquaculture industry. In this study, a twelve week growth trial was conducted with juvenile cobia (18. g initial weight) to examine the effects of non-genetically modified soybean meals as potential replacement protein sources. Genetically modified (GM) crops and their intended and unintended effects have become major topics of controversy worldwide, with several regions banning their use in food and feeds. Therefore, it is especially critical to develop and evaluate non-GM feedstuffs for use in aquaculture diets where GM products are prohibited as the global aquaculture industry continues its expansion to meet increasing demands.Navita Premium Feed Ingredients (NPFI's) 3010 solvent extracted meal and 3032 cold-pressed cake meal were utilized to replace 50, 60 or 70% and 40, 50, or 60% of FM protein, respectively and were compared to a FM based reference formulation. None of the experimental diets performed significantly different from the reference diet in terms of weight gain (WG) or specific growth rate (SGR). However the 3010 50% diet performed significantly better than the 3032 50 and 60% diets in regard to WG, SGR, and protein efficiency.There were no significant differences between the seven diets at the conclusion of the trial in regard to their effects on filet quality as determined by organoleptic testing. These two non-GM soybean protein sources appear to be valuable FM replacement options for juvenile cobia, with none of the typical indicators of intestinal enteritis developing as has been observed in various other teleost species when high quantities of commodity soybean meal have been utilized. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Peredo A.M.,Texas A&M University | Peredo A.M.,Texas Parks and Wildlife Department | Buentello A.,Texas A&M University | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2015

Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with the prebiotic GroBiotic-A on juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Juvenile fish in both trials received a basal diet composed of practical and semipurified ingredients or the basal diet supplemented with GroBiotic-A at either 1 or 2% of dry weight. Trial 1 (8wk), was conducted with juvenile fish initially averaging 4.3g/fish in which their performance indices, nonspecific humoral and cellular immune responses, and intestinal microbiota were characterized. In that trial, only survival was significantly affected by dietary treatment with the greatest survival (98.7%) observed for fish fed the diet containing 2% GroBiotic-A and significantly (P<0.05) lower survival (86.9%) for fish fed the diet containing 1% GroBiotic-A (GBA) and intermediate survival (90.7%) for fish fed the basal diet. Trial 2 (5wk), was conducted with larger juveniles initially averaging 6.5g/fish to provide a more in-depth assessment of cellular immune responses, intestinal morphometric characteristics, and disease resistance of tilapia fed the three experimental diets. Fish fed the diet with 2% GroBiotic-A exhibited significantly (P<0.05) increased production of extracellular superoxide anion by macrophages and a distinct microbial community within the intestine compared to fish fed the other diets. No significant differences were seen in survival after controlled exposure to Streptococcus iniae although fish fed the diet with 2% GBA tended to experience reduced mortality (12.5%) compared to those fed the basal diet (35%). Thus, based on the results from both trials, supplementation of 2% GroBiotic-A generally improved survival, altered gut microbiota, and enhanced extracellular superoxide anion production of Nile tilapia. © World Aquaculture Society 2015.


Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients | Jirsa D.,Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute | Barrows F.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Drawbridge M.,Hubbs SeaWorld Research Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

A study was undertaken to examine the potential of two non-genetically modified (non-GM) soy products, differentially processed, as fishmeal (FM) replacements. Dietary protein (DP) was replaced at 50, 60 and 70% using the 3011 meal or 40, 50 and 60% with the 3032 meal. Ingredient 3011 was a cooked and solvent-extracted meal from a high protein and low oligosaccharide soy cultivar; whereas, ingredient 3032 was a cold-pressed, low fat cake ground to a meal that originated from a medium protein, low oligosaccharide, low protease inhibitor soy cultivar. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous (45% crude protein, CP), isolipidic (13% lipid), isocaloric (12.6kJ energy kg-1 of diet) and were balanced for lysine (3.2%) and methionine+cysteine (2%). Taurine was supplemented at 1.5% in all diets. A commercial control diet (52% CP and 13% lipid) was included for a total of eight test diets. Twenty four round tanks (330L) were each stocked with 20, 4g yellowtail (Seriola lalandi). Tanks were supplied with recirculated seawater and each diet was randomly assigned to three replicate tanks. After a 10-week feeding trial, growth, survival, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention, condition factor and carcass proximate composition were contrasted among dietary treatments. Results indicate that juvenile yellowtail fed diets in which the 3032 meal provided 50 and 60% of DP grew significantly (P<0.001) better than those fed all other diets, including the FM-based (menhaden FM) and commercial control diets. Fish fed with the 3011 meal providing 50% of DP and those fed with the 3032 meal providing 40% of DP had similar growth performance which was slightly greater than the fish fed the FM reference diet. Minor intestinal histology differences were found among fish fed the 8 diets. Taken together these data indicates that the improved non-GM soybean meals supported better performance of juvenile yellowtail than fish fed the FM reference diet. No enteritis was detected even at high dietary inclusion levels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Zhou Y.-G.,Auburn University | Davis D.A.,Auburn University | Buentello A.,Navita Premium Feed Ingredients
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of eight sources (designated A-H) of soybean meal (SBM) which included six new non-genetically modified soya varieties in practical feed formulation for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using both growth and digestibility trials. A soybean meal-based reference diet was formulated using conventional soybean meal (527 g kg-1 diet), which was then replaced on an isonitrogenous basis with various other experimental soybean meals. In a 6-week growth trial, shrimp in four replicate tanks per dietary treatment (10 shrimp per tank, initial weight 0.52 ± 0.04 g) were cultured in a recirculating system. There were no significant differences with respects to per cent weight gain and survival across all dietary treatments; however, final weights and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower in shrimp offered diet 3. Apparent digestibility coefficients for the eight (A-H) different soybean meals were determined in L. vannamei for dry matter (ADMD), gross energy (ADE) and crude protein (ADP) using 10 g kg-1 chromic oxide as inert marker with 70 : 30 replacement techniques. Coefficients ranged from 71.3% to 88.3%, from 76.6% to 91.3% and from 93.6% to 99.8%, for ADMD, ADE and ADP, respectively. Improved digestibility values were observed in soybean C which was characterized by crude protein (471 g kg-1), crude fat (97 g kg-1), low cooking temperature (180 °C), higher nitrogen solubility index (689 g kg-1) and protein dispersibility index (619 g kg-1). This indicates that new lines of soybean meal can be used to improve digestibility coefficients in shrimp feeds. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Suarez J.A.,University of Miami | Tudela C.,University of Miami | Davis D.,University of Miami | Daugherty Z.,University of Miami | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

A constraint for the expansion of cobia aquaculture is the availability of high quality formulated diets which reduce or eliminate fish meal (FM) protein. Therefore, the nutritive value of a novel soybean cultivar, Navita™ (Navita, non-genetically modified and selectively bred soy), and regular, commodity soybean meal (SBM, de-hulled, defatted, roasted and solvent-extracted) was evaluated for cobia, Rachycentron canadum via separate digestibility and growth trials. In the first experiment Navita's apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were higher than those of SBM for nearly every nutrient evaluated. Crude protein ADCs were 82 and 69% for Navita and SBM, respectively. Apparent DC for amino acids ranged from 68 to 109% for Navita whereas, amino acid ADCs for SBM varied from 42 to 98%. The feeding trial utilized fish of a size that more closely resembles commercial cobia stocking (1.8. kg), and was conducted over a 91-day period. Experimental diets (iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic) were formulated such that 67% of the FM protein in the reference diet was replaced by either a combination of SBM. +. soy protein concentrate (SPC, Solae Profine®) labeled MXSB-diet, or by a combination of SPC. +. Navita; Navita-diet, hereafter. A fourth experimental diet had 80% of the FM protein replaced by a combination of Navita. +. SPC and was identified as Navita-high. No significant differences (P>. 0.05) were observed in fish fed the experimental diets for feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency, mean daily intake, gross protein intake, gross energy intake, visceral somatic index, muscle ratio, and hepatosomatic index. Fish fed the Navita-high diet had the lowest fish in:fish out ratio (FIFO) at 0.9. ±. 0.16. These results indicate that Navita meal can be incorporated at very high levels in the diet of marine carnivorous fish such as cobia with no detriment to performance, making it a prime candidate for FM replacement in aquafeeds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2013

In November 2011 the worlds human population reached 7 billion. Concurrent role shifts in world economies (e.g., competition for seafood products with China) make it necessary for aquaculture to grow at a pace much faster than previously estimated. In addition, the American seafood trade deficit now exceeds $10 billion per year. Clearly, we are at a point when new technologies are desperately needed to aquaculture food production. It is clear that future aquaculture expansion cannot rely on resources which are static at best - if not declining - as is the case of fishmeal. Soybean meal (SBM) is an excellent source of dietary protein. However, possible SBM inclusion levels in fish/shrimp feeds are limited due to the presence of both heat-resistant and thermo-labile anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in SBM. While solvent-extracting and cooking significantly reduce the biological activity of protease inhibitors, this processing also renders protein less available for absorption at the intestinal level. Likewise, the preparation of soy protein concentrates (SPC) uses ethanol (or acid) percolation to displace soluble/indigestible carbohydrates (oligosaccharides) but, in doing so it also drives out minerals and vitamins of which SBM is considered a rich source. Moreover, the use of heated alcohol further denatures protein reducing solubility/dispersibility values (indicative of a diminished protein bioavailability). Recent advances in soy breeding have allowed for the development of non-genetically modified cultivars with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Reduced trypsin inhibitors, reduced oligosaccharides and high protein are traits that have been achieved with more improvements being constantly developed. Building on progress to date we have tested several unconventional, not-thermal (energy-saving), nutrient-preserving treatments to process aquafeed-oriented soybean cultivars into novelty meals. The proposed work will quantify - in Atlantic salmon, hybrid striped bass, tilapia and Pacific white shrimp - the effects of using these novel ingredients on waste generation and water quality of recirculating culture systems. Measurable quantities of waste materials generated by fish fed diets based on conventional SBM, SPC and/or fismeal will be contrasted with those produced by fish fed the test ingredients. Apparent digestibility coefficients, fish performance indicators, gut histology and changes in enteric populations of bacteria will be evaluated as well. We envision that the synergy between enhanced soybean cultivars processed under unconventional non-thermal methods will allow for higher inclusion rates in fish/shrimp feed formulations resulting in increased sales of American soy products worldwide. The production of alternative, soy-based aquafeeds will have a significant and positive impact in American aquaculture as well as on American seafood supply and availability.


Trademark
Navita Premium Feed Ingredients and Schillinger Genetics Inc. | Date: 2010-08-24

Animal feed; soybean meal for use in animal feed.

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