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Crocetti E.,U.O. Epidemiologia clinica | Mallone S.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia | Robsahm T.E.,Institute of Population based Cancer Research | Gavin A.,Queens University of Belfast | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Background In Europe skin melanoma (SM) survival has increased over time. The aims were to evaluate recent trends and differences between countries and regions of Europe. Methods Relative survival (RS) estimates and geographical comparisons were based on 241,485 patients aged 15 years and over with a diagnosis of invasive SM in Europe (2000-2007). Survival time trends during 1999-2007 were estimated using the period approach, for 213,101 patients. Age, gender, sub-sites and morphology subgroups were considered. Results In European patients, estimated 5-year RS was 83% (95% confidence interval, CI 83-84%). The highest values were found for patients resident in Northern (88%; 87-88%) and Central (88%; 87-88%) Europe, followed by Ireland and United Kingdom (UK) (86%; 85-86%) and Southern Europe (83%; 82-83%). The lowest survival was in Eastern Europe (74%; 74-75%). Within regions the intercountry absolute difference in percentage points of RS varied from 4% (North) to 34% (East). RS decreased markedly with patients' age and was higher in women than men. Differences according to SM morphology and skin sub-sites also emerged. Survival has slightly increased from 1999 to 2007, with a small improvement in Northern and the most pronounced improvement in Eastern Europe. Discussion SM survival is high and still increasing in European patients. The gap between Northern and Southern and especially Eastern European countries, although still present, diminished over time. Differences in stage distribution at diagnosis may explain most of the geographical differences. However, part of the improvement in survival may be attributed to overdiagnosis from early diagnosis practices. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Arnold M.,Rotterdam University | Holterhues C.,Rotterdam University | Hollestein L.M.,Rotterdam University | Coebergh J.W.W.,Rotterdam University | And 21 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2014

Background: Melanoma is a significant health problem in Caucasian populations. The most recently available data from cancer registries often have a delay of several months up to a few years and they are generally not easily accessible. Objectives: To assess recent age- and sex-specific trends in melanoma incidence and make predictions for 2010 and 2015. Methods: A retrospective registry-based analysis was performed with data from 29 European cancer registries. Most of them had data available from 1990 up to 2006/7. World-standardized incidence rates (WSR) and the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) were computed. Predictions were based on linear projection models. Results: Overall the incidence of melanoma is rapidly rising and will continue to do so. The incidence among women in Europe was generally higher than in men. The highest incidence rates were seen for Northern and north-western countries like the UK, Ireland and the Netherlands. The lowest incidence rates were observed in Portugal and Spain. The incidence overall remained stable in Norway, where, amongst young (25-49 years) Norwegian males rates significantly decreased (EAPC -2.8, 95% CI -3.6; -2.0). Despite a low melanoma incidence among persons above the age of 70, this age group experienced the greatest increase in risk during the study period. Conclusions: Incidence rates of melanoma are expected to continue rising. These trends are worrying in terms of disease burden, particularly in eastern European countries. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source


Gallo V.,Imperial College London | Gallo V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mackenbach J.P.,Erasmus Medical Center | Ezzati M.,Imperial College London | And 45 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Socio-economic inequalities in mortality are observed at the country level in both North America and Europe. The purpose of this work is to investigate the contribution of specific risk factors to social inequalities in cause-specific mortality using a large multi-country cohort of Europeans. Methods: A total of 3,456,689 person/years follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was analysed. Educational level of subjects coming from 9 European countries was recorded as proxy for socio-economic status (SES). Cox proportional hazard model's with a step-wise inclusion of explanatory variables were used to explore the association between SES and mortality; a Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated as measure of relative inequality. Results: Total mortality among men with the highest education level is reduced by 43% compared to men with the lowest (HR 0.57, 95% C.I. 0.52-0.61); among women by 29% (HR 0.71, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.78). The risk reduction was attenuated by 7% in men and 3% in women by the introduction of smoking and to a lesser extent (2% in men and 3% in women) by introducing body mass index and additional explanatory variables (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) (3% in men and 5% in women). Social inequalities were highly statistically significant for all causes of death examined in men. In women, social inequalities were less strong, but statistically significant for all causes of death except for cancer-related mortality and injuries. Discussion: In this European study, substantial social inequalities in mortality among European men and women which cannot be fully explained away by accounting for known common risk factors for chronic diseases are reported. © 2012 Gallo et al. Source


Peters T.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Brage S.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Westgate K.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Franks P.W.,Umea University | And 42 more authors.
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (σ) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I2 = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I2 > 48%, P < 0.05, I2 > 47%, P < 0.05). PAEE increased linearly across self-reported PA categories (P for trend <0.001), with an average difference of approximately 460 kJ/d for men and 365 kJ/d for women, between categories of the Cambridge index. The EPIC-PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research. © 2011 The Author(s). Source


Fernandez-Balbuena S.,Carlos III Health Institute | Belza M.J.,Carlos III Health Institute | Belza M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | Castilla J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 7 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: This paper examines the awareness and use of nonoccupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) in Spain, and the factors that influence this awareness. Methods: Between June 2009 and July 2010, a mobile unit offered free, rapid HIV tests in a number of Spanish cities. A total of 2545 people were passively recruited and tested, and answered a self-administered questionnaire containing sociodemographic, behavioural and nPEP-related questions. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed, stratifying by gender/sexual behaviour. Results: Some 34% of the responders were men who have sex with men (MSM), 30% were men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW), and 35% were women. Approximately 26% were foreigners, 46% had a university degree, and 51% had previously taken an HIV test. Overall, 22% were aware of nPEP. Only 2% had ever used it; 70% of these after high-risk sexual intercourse. Awareness was higher among MSM (34%) than women (16%) and MSW (15%). Multivariate analysis showed a lack of nPEP awareness to be associated with being born in Latin America, while awareness increased with the number of previous HIV tests among women and MSW. In MSM, awareness was also associated with having a university degree, the degree of interaction with gay culture, number of partners, and use of the internet as the main way of meeting partners. Conclusions: nPEP awareness in the studied population was unacceptably low. The promotion of its availability should be made a major objective of prevention programmes, as a complementary measure to condom use. © 2012 British HIV Association. Source

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