Navarra Institute for Health Research

Navarra, Spain

Navarra Institute for Health Research

Navarra, Spain
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Silveira M.M.,University of British Columbia | Arnold J.C.,University of Sydney | Laviolette S.R.,University of Western Ontario | Hillard C.J.,Medical College of Wisconsin | And 4 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2017

Public opinion surrounding the recreational use and therapeutic potential of cannabis is shifting. This review describes new work examining the behavioural and neural effects of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system, highlighting key regions within corticolimbic brain circuits. First, we consider the role of human genetic factors and cannabis strain chemotypic differences in contributing to interindividual variation in the response to cannabinoids, such as THC, and review studies demonstrating that THC-induced impairments in decision-making processes are mediated by actions at prefrontal CB1 receptors. We further describe evidence that signalling through prefrontal or ventral hippocampal CB1 receptors modulates mesolimbic dopamine activity, aberrations of which may contribute to emotional processing deficits in schizophrenia. Lastly, we review studies suggesting that endocannabinoid tone in the amygdala is a critical regulator of anxiety, and report new data showing that FAAH activity is integral to this response. Together, these findings underscore the importance of cannabinoid signalling in the regulation of cognitive and affective behaviours, and encourage further research given their social, political, and therapeutic implications. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Petzold A.,University of Oxford | Petzold A.,Imperial College London | Valencia M.,University of Navarra | Valencia M.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits | Year: 2015

Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) are most active during the waking state. Their activation is deemed to cause a switch in the global brain activity from sleep to wakefulness, while their sustained discharge may contribute to upholding the waking state and enhancing arousal. Similarly, non-cholinergic PPN neurons are responsive to brain state transitions and their activation may influence some of the same targets of cholinergic neurons, suggesting that they operate in coordination. Yet, it is not clear how the discharge of distinct classes of PPN neurons organize during brain states. Here, we monitored the in vivo network activity of PPN neurons in the anesthetized rat across two distinct levels of cortical dynamics and their transitions. We identified a highly structured configuration in PPN network activity during slow-wave activity that was replaced by decorrelated activity during the activated state (AS). During the transition, neurons were predominantly excited (phasically or tonically), but some were inhibited. Identified cholinergic neurons displayed phasic and short latency responses to sensory stimulation, whereas the majority of non-cholinergic showed tonic responses and remained at high discharge rates beyond the state transition. In vitro recordings demonstrate that cholinergic neurons exhibit fast adaptation that prevents them from discharging at high rates over prolonged time periods. Our data shows that PPN neurons have distinct but complementary roles during brain state transitions, where cholinergic neurons provide a fast and transient response to sensory events that drive state transitions, whereas non-cholinergic neurons maintain an elevated firing rate during global activation. © 2015 Petzold, Valencia, Pál and Mena-Segovia.


Aymerich M.S.,University of Navarra | Aymerich M.S.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | Rojo-Bustamante E.,University of Navarra | Molina C.,University of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2016

Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a role in neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease. Recently, we have shown the neuroprotective effect of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition with JZL184 in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model. However, further investigation is needed to determine the neuroprotective mechanisms of the endocannabinoid system on the nigrostriatal pathway. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the neuroprotective effect of JZL184 in mice could be extended to an in vitro cellular model to further understand the mechanism of action of the drug. The SH-SY5Y cell line was selected based on its dopaminergic-like phenotype and its susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide (MPP+) toxicity. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y cells express both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The present study describes the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. The effect of JZL184 in cell survival was blocked by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist, and it was mimicked with JWH133, a CB2 receptor agonist. Rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not affect JZL184-induced cell survival. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of MAGL inhibition with JZL184 described in animal models of Parkinson’s disease could be extended to in vitro models such as SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. This represents a useful tool to study mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAGL inhibition, and we provide evidence for the possible involvement of CB2 receptors in the improvement of cell survival. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Solas M.,University of Navarra | Solas M.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | Puerta E.,University of Navarra | Puerta E.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | And 2 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2015

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Research focused on identifying compounds that restore cognition and memory in AD patients is a very active investigational pursuit, but unfortunately, it has been only successful in terms of developing symptomatic treatments. Aβ deposition and neurofibrillary tangles along with neuron and synapse loss are associated with neurotransmitter dysfunction and have been recognized as hallmarks of AD. Furthermore, clinical and preclinical studies point to this neurotransmitter dysfunction as a main factor underlying both cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms of the illness. Cholinergic deficit in AD prompted the use of cholinesterase inhibitors as the symptomatic treatment of cognitive decline in AD, however this therapeutic approach provides only modest benefit in the majority of patients. Hence, nowadays research is focused on investigating compounds that could restore cognition and memory in AD patients. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and GABAergic neurons provide extensive innervation to cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons. It has been shown that dysfunction of the GABAergic system may contribute to cognitive impairment in humans. Significant reductions in GABA levels have been described in severe cases of AD, which could be underlying the behavioral and psychological symptoms of AD. This review examines the involvement of the GABAergic system in both cognitive and non-cognitive behavioural symptoms in AD, providing some pointers for rational drug development. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


Dautan D.,University of Oxford | Dautan D.,University of Leicester | Dautan D.,Rutgers University | Souza A.S.,University of Oxford | And 14 more authors.
Nature Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) receive cholinergic innervation from brainstem structures that are associated with either movement or reward. Whereas cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) carry an associative/motor signal, those of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) convey limbic information. We used optogenetics and in vivo juxtacellular recording and labeling to examine the influence of brainstem cholinergic innervation of distinct neuronal subpopulations in the VTA. We found that LDT cholinergic axons selectively enhanced the bursting activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that were excited by aversive stimulation. In contrast, PPN cholinergic axons activated and changed the discharge properties of VTA neurons that were integrated in distinct functional circuits and were inhibited by aversive stimulation. Although both structures conveyed a reinforcing signal, they had opposite roles in locomotion. Our results demonstrate that two modes of cholinergic transmission operate in the VTA and segregate the neurons involved in different reward circuits. © 2016 Nature America, Inc.


Toledo E.,Public University of Navarra | Salas-Salvado J.,University of Cambridge | Donat-Vargas C.,Public University of Navarra | Buil-Cosiales P.,Nutricion Institute Salud Carlos III | And 16 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE Breast cancer is the leading cause of female cancer burden, and its incidence has increased by more than 20%worldwide since 2008. Some observational studies have suggested that the Mediterranean dietmay reduce the risk of breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 interventions with Mediterranean diet vs the advice to follow a low-fat diet (control) on breast cancer incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The PREDIMED study is a 1:1:1 randomized, single-blind, controlled field trial conducted at primary health care centers in Spain. From 2003 to 2009, 4282 women aged 60 to 80 years and at high cardiovascular disease risk were recruited after invitation by their primary care physicians. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomly allocated to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Breast cancer incidencewas a prespecified secondary outcome of the trial for women without a prior history of breast cancer (n = 4152). RESULTS After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, we identified 35 confirmed incident cases of breast cancer. Observed rates (per 1000 person-years) were 1.1 for the Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil group, 1.8 for the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, and 2.9 for the control group. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios vs the control group were 0.32 (95%CI, 0.13-0.79) for the Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil group and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.26-1.35) for the Mediterranean diet with nuts group. In analyses with yearly cumulative updated dietary exposures, the hazard ratio for each additional 5%of calories from extra-virgin olive oil was 0.72 (95%CI, 0.57-0.90). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first randomized trial finding an effect of a long-term dietary intervention on breast cancer incidence. Our results suggest a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer. These results come from a secondary analysis of a previous trial and are based on few incident cases and, therefore, need to be confirmed in longer-term and larger studies. Copyright © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Lopez B.,University of Navarra | Lopez B.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | Ravassa S.,University of Navarra | Ravassa S.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | And 16 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Background Excessive myocardial collagen cross-linking (CCL) determines myocardial collagen's resistance to degradation by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and interstitial accumulation of collagen fibers with impairment of cardiac function. Objectives This study sought to investigate whether CCL and a newly identified biomarker of this alteration are associated with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) or cardiovascular death in patients with HF and arterial hypertension in whom other comorbidities were excluded. Methods Endomyocardial biopsies and blood samples from 38 patients (invasive study), and blood samples from 203 patients (noninvasive study) were analyzed. Mean follow-ups were 7.74 ± 0.58 years and 4.72 ± 0.11 years, respectively. Myocardial CCL was calculated as the ratio between insoluble and soluble collagen. The ratio between the C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (CITP:MMP-1) was determined in blood samples. Results Invasive study: CCL was increased (p < 0.001) in patients compared with controls. Patients were categorized according to normal or high CCL values. Patients with high CCL exhibited higher risk for subsequent HHF (log-rank test p = 0.022), but not for cardiovascular death. CITP:MMP-1 was inversely associated with CCL (r = -0.460; p = 0.005) in all patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves rendered a CITP:MMP-1 cutoff ≤1.968 (80% sensitivity and 76% specificity) for predicting high CCL. Noninvasive study: Patients were categorized according to CITP:MMP-1 ratio values as normal ratio (>1.968) or low ratio (≤1.968). Patients with a low ratio exhibited higher risk for HHF (log-rank test p = 0.014), which remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariables (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.37 to 3.59, p = 0.001). In addition, CITP:MMP-1-based categorization yielded significant integrated discrimination and net reclassification improvements (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively) for HHF over relevant risk factors. CITP:MMP-1 was not associated with the risk of cardiovascular death. Conclusions Excessive myocardial CCL is associated with HHF in hypertensive patients with HF. In this population, the serum CITP:MMP-1 ratio identifies patients with increased CCL and high risk of HHF. © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Yarza R.,University of Navarra | Vela S.,University of Navarra | Solas M.,University of Navarra | Solas M.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2016

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are a family of protein kinases that play a central role in stress signaling pathways implicated in gene expression, neuronal plasticity, regeneration, cell death, and regulation of cellular senescence. It has been shown that there is a JNK pathway activation after exposure to different stressing factors, including cytokines, growth factors, oxidative stress, unfolded protein response signals or Aβ peptides. Altogether, JNKs have become a focus of screening strategies searching for new therapeutic approaches to diabetes, cancer or liver diseases. In addition, activation of JNK has been identified as a key element responsible for the regulation of apoptosis signals and therefore, it is critical for pathological cell death associated with neurodegenerative diseases and, among them, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have reported alterations of JNK pathways potentially associated with pathogenesis and neuronal death in AD. JNK's, particularly JNK3, not only enhance Aβ production, moreover it plays a key role in the maturation and development of neurofibrillary tangles. This review aims to explain the rationale behind testing therapies based on inhibition of JNK signaling for AD in terms of current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease. Keeping in mind that JNK3 is specifically expressed in the brain and activated by stress-stimuli, it is possible to hypothesize that inhibition of JNK3 might be considered as a potential target for treating neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with AD. © 2016 Yarza, Vela, Solas and Ramirez.


Vicent S.,University of Navarra | Vicent S.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | Perurena N.,University of Navarra | Govindan R.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

The skeleton is a common site of metastases in lung cancer, an event associated with significant morbidities and poor outcomes. Current antiresorptive therapies provide limited benefit, and novel strategies of prevention and treatment are urgently needed. This review summarizes the latest advances and new perspectives on emerging experimental and clinical approaches to block this deleterious process. Progress propelled by preclinical models has led to a deeper understanding on the complex interplay of tumor cells in the osseous milieu, unveiling potential new targets for drug development. Improvements in early diagnosis through the use of sophisticated imaging techniques with bone serum biomarkers are also discussed in the context of identifying patients at risk and monitoring disease progression during the course of treatment. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society.


Rodriguez-Perdigon M.,University of Navarra | Solas M.,University of Navarra | Solas M.,Navarra Institute for Health Research
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2016

In the present work, the involvement of JNK in insulin signaling alterations and its role in glutamatergic deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied. In postmortem cortical tissues, pJNK levels were increased, while insulin signaling and the expression of VGLUT1 were decreased. A significant correlation was found between reduced expression of insulin receptor and VGLUT1. The administration of a JNK inhibitor reversed the decrease in VGLUT1 expression found in a mice model of insulin resistance. It is suggested that activation of JNK in AD inhibits insulin signaling which could lead to a decreased expression of VGLUT1, therefore contributing to the glutamatergic deficit in AD. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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