Griffin D.W.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Gray M.A.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Lyles M.B.,Us Naval War College |
Northup D.E.,University of New Mexico
Geomicrobiology Journal | Year: 2014
A series of atmospheric investigations was conducted in Carlsbad Cavern to determine if human visitation is a possible cause for the contamination of the cave system with non-indigenous microorganisms. In 2004, site-specific culture-based data demonstrated that Staphylococcus spp. colony-forming units (CFUs) were the most prevalent members of the atmospheric community along the paved visitor trail (avg. 18.8% of CFU), while Knoellia spp. CFUs dominated off-trail locations (40.1% of CFU). Fungal culture data revealed that Penicillium and Aspergillus were prevalent in the Lunch Room where food is stored, sold, and consumed. Ubiquitous genera such as Cladosporium and Alternaria were prevalent near the Natural Entrance of the cave, and the general trend was a decrease in fungal CFUs with progression into the cave system, except for the area near the Lunch Room. Management practices such as prohibition of crumb-generating types of foods could be considered to protect cave health. In 2009, nonculture-based analyses demonstrated that Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant microbiota at sites along the descent trail and within the Lunch Room. Dominance of Enterobacteriaceae has not been previously demonstrated in caves. Either they are naturally occurring indigenous members, or their presence is a marker of anthropogenic contamination. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Benson A.C.,Us Naval War College
Journal of Documentation | Year: 2015
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to survey the treatment of relationships, relationship expressions and the ways in which they manifest themselves in image descriptions. Design/methodology/approach – The term “relationship” is construed in the broadest possible way to include spatial relationships (“to the right of”), temporal (“in 1936,” “at noon”), meronymic (“part of”), and attributive (“has color,” “has dimension”). The intentions of these vaguely delimited categories with image information, image creation, and description in libraries and archives is complex and in need of explanation. Findings – The review brings into question many generally held beliefs about the relationship problem such as the belief that the semantics of relationships are somehow embedded in the relationship term itself and that image search and retrieval solutions can be found through refinement of word-matching systems. Originality/value – This review has no hope of systematically examining all evidence in all disciplines pertaining to this topic. It instead focusses on a general description of a theoretical treatment in Library and Information Science. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Rovner J.,Us Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2012
The conventional wisdom holds that security in Iraq only improved after Gen. David Petraeus implemented a new counterinsurgency doctrine that stressed population security instead of aggressive operations against insurgent forces. This interpretation is strikingly similar to the historiography of the Huk Rebellion, the Malayan Emergency, and the Vietnam War. In each case observers criticized initial efforts as brutal and counterproductive, only to be rescued when enlightened new leaders arrived on the scene. This article challenges the familiar hero narrative, arguing that critics routinely exaggerate the importance of leadership changes because they view conflicts as experiments in counterinsurgency rather than exercises in state-building. Whereas counterinsurgency (COIN) theory emphasizes issues like public security and government legitimacy, theorists of state-building describe a bloody and protracted competition for power under conditions approaching anarchy. The upshot is that the "heroes" of late-stage COIN might actually depend on the earlier "villains" who did the dirty work of establishing political order and coercing the population into obedience. © 2012.
Zakheim D.S.,Us Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2014
America's strategy has become increasingly budget-driven in the face of ongoing cuts, culminating in the sequester. As a result, fewer funds are, and will be, available for critical operations, notably exercises and training with foreign forces that are the key both to strengthening alliances and partnerships and to deterring current and potential adversaries. That Washington continues to revise its defense strategy virtually on an annual basis has further undermined its credibility worldwide. Given its long-standing global interests, and uncertainty regarding when and where it might again have to commit forces to defend them, the United States must reinvigorate its efforts to streamline the Defense Department so as to maintain its global posture in the face of budget pressures. Measures to improve defense efficiency include reductions in the civilian and contractor work forces, overhaul of the military medical and retirement systems, and repeal of anachronistic laws that foster waste in defense acquisition. © 2013.
Kraska J.,Us Naval War College
Journal of Ocean Technology | Year: 2010
Unmanned systems are becoming ubiquitous in the oceans, and naval forces throughout the world are primary operators of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), unmanned surface vessels (USVs) and unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). International law governing activities on, over and under the sea emerged well before the development of unmanned systems. As UAVs, USVs and UUVs become more advanced - already autonomous, expendable and "intelligent" robots are emerging, forming networked systems - legal and policy issues are becoming acute. This article suggests that as "aircraft" and "vessels," unmanned naval systems fit within the existing legal architecture for peacetime maritime operations, including the 1944 Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. These two treaties and their progeny provide guidance for the use of most of the global commons, and reflect a liberal legal architecture for unmanned air-sea vehicles and systems. © Journal of Ocean Technology 2010.
Cook J.L.,Us Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2013
While military alliances have always been important to the United States, some experts wonder about their future. In today's uncertain security environment, they question whether these alliances may have outlived their usefulness. The author argues that U.S. national security leaders face some difficult choices as they formulate strategy and determine the number and types of collective security arrangements the nation will require to secure its national interests in the future. © 2013.
Norris A.,Us Naval War College
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2015
The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) was created in 2004 to more effectively conserve and manage the region's tuna fishery. One of the Commission's principal enforcement tools is the high seas boarding and inspection regime, which authorizes each member state to board and inspect fishing vessels engaged in a regulated fishery to verify compliance with the Commission's conservation and management measures. This article examines the structure of the WCPFC's high seas boarding and inspection regime and analyzes its effectiveness in furthering the Commission's conservations and management mandate. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Smith P.J.,Us Naval War College
Conflict, Security and Development | Year: 2011
Climate change is emerging as one of the primary geopolitical challenges of the early twenty-first century, one that will likely involve military engagements and deployments in both traditional and nontraditional missions. Unlike mass casualty terrorism, climate change does not have a single galvanising event that can encourage collective mitigation efforts by both developed and developing states. International efforts to counter putative climate change causes have, thus far, been only marginally successful. Consequently, some of the more pernicious effects of climate change-extreme weather, heat waves, droughts and floods-will likely continue to manifest in the years and decades ahead. Froma geopolitical perspective, climate changemay influence the trajectory of rising or declining states in an increasingly multipolar world. It may also induce or exacerbate resource competition between states, particularly with regard to energy resources, water and food.Climate changemay also exert a general weakening effect on lesser developed countries, thus necessitating increasingly intrusive and costly humanitarian assistance and disaster response (HADR)missions, some of which may be conducted by military agencies. Overall, these trends suggest that climate change will continue to emerge as a significant factor that shapes and defines future military missions and deployments. © 2011 Conflict, Security and Development Group.
Warrior L.C.,Us Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2015
There is widespread interest in how armed drones are used, how targets are chosen, and what frameworks of legality and political accountability exist. Less addressed is how use, targeting, justification, and accountability affect the people and the organizations being asked to operate the drones. This article examines the costs to the operators and the military organization of increased reliance on drones. It argues that the government and the public need to come to terms with the human costs-both foreign and American-of increased use of unmanned systems. It concludes that the government needs to find a way to make its employment of drones transparent and accountable enough that it will not harm the overall well-being, morale, and loyalty of the force. © 2015.
Reveron D.S.,Us Naval War College |
Gvosdev N.K.,Us Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2015
There is an enduring consensus about America's role in the world, which is due to the fact that while administrations may change, fundamental U.S. interests have not. These include protecting the U.S. homeland from catastrophic attack, sustaining a global system marked by open lines of communication to facilitate commerce, and preserving regional balances of power. Far from being a reluctant imperialist or hegemon on the offensive, the United States tends to fill security voids when they are created (even if often late to the game) to ensure the international system remains functional. To be sure, future U.S. grand strategy will be global and multilateral, but it will be much more selective than it is today.Foreign policy consists in bringing into balance, with a comfortable surplus of power in reserve, the nation's commitments and the nation's power.11Walter Lippmann, U.S. Foreign Policy: Shield of the Republic (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1943).- Walter Lippman. © 2015.