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Yoshihara T.,Naval War College
Journal of the Indian Ocean Region | Year: 2013

Beginning in late 2011, successive US defence policy documents and official pronouncements explicitly depicted American strategy in Asia in Indo-Pacific terms. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton was the first top US official to frame expanding US partnerships with Australia, India, and Indonesia in the broader Indo-Pacific context. Subsequently, President Barak Obama reaffirmed Clinton's vision in his November 2011 speech to the Australian House of Representatives. Two months later, the Pentagon published its strategic guidance that directed the US military to 'rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region', declaring that American interests are 'inextricably linked to developments in the arc extending from the western Pacific and East Asia into the Indian Ocean region and South Asia'. The 'pivot' to the Indo-Pacific has since become the driving force behind the US regional strategy. © 2013 Copyright Indian Ocean Research Group. Source

Johnson-Freese J.,Naval War College
Orbis | Year: 2012

When considering how to make the war colleges more effective, it should be remembered that first and foremost, the job of the war colleges is to educate students to make them better defenders of the United States of America and its interests and its allies around the world. However, the author gives many recommendations on how these colleges can better educate, rather than train. © 2011. Source

Near-Earth orbit is a key global resource, hosting assets critical to governments, militaries and commercial entities and providing services for global communications, remote sensing, national and international security, and accurate positioning and timing. It is also an increasingly crowded, congested and contested environment, at risk from both intentional and unintentional activities and events, and threats natural and human-made. Ensuring the long-term sustainability of the space environment is an increasingly recognized need by all users of space. This article considers the viability of principles regarding sustainable common-pool resources (CPRs) established by Elinor Ostrom for space governance. In this initial consideration, we focus specifically on the issues of boundaries, collective choice arrangements and monitoring. Within those contexts, Ostrom's principles appear most useful for identifying gaps in the current space governance system and mechanisms. Further, while Ostrom provides multiple success stories for her model, they typically include common-pool regimes functioning at a local level, with success stories on a larger scale elusive. Near-Earth orbit is perhaps the largest-scale CPR to consider. Consequently, not only is additional work needed to relate Ostrom's model specifically to space, but to determine the limits of applicability of Ostrom's model and other models that should be considered. © 2012 London School of Economics and Political Science and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Integration between traditional and contemporary health care in a host nation can be beneficial to nation- and capacity-building and, subsequently, to the overall health of the society. "Traditional" health care in this sense refers to the indigenous health care system in the host nation, which includes characteristic religious or cultural practices, whereas "contemporary" health care is also known as "conventional" or "Westernized"; integration is a synchronization of these two health care forms. However, the choice of integration depends on the political and cultural situation of the nation in which the Department of Defense health care personnel are intervening. Thus, cultural awareness training is essential to ensure the success of missions related to global health and in promoting a health care system that is most beneficial to the society. The present study attempts to show the benefits of both cultural training and health care integration, and how adequately evaluating their efficacy has been problematic. The author proposes that determinants of this efficacy are better documentation collection, extensive predeployment cultural awareness and sensitivity training, and extensive after-action reports for future development. © Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved. Source

Famme J.B.,Naval War College | Price B.,Simon Fraser University | Raitch T.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Davison J.,OSL Ltd.
Naval Engineers Journal | Year: 2011

The United States and Allied Maritime domain dominance of sea approaches, lengthy coastlines, and associated rivers and ports is essential. At risk are the security and the economies of the United States and allied countries. The classical Mahan strategies for control of the maritime domain are the role of ships of the line, submarines, and aircraft in roles for Sea and Choke Points Control and Amphibious Assault. Current threats have proven the need to extend tactical response options beyond the ship's hull to its boats and RHIBs used for security and "combatant" craft roles including antipiracy, antidrug, illegal trade, and border security. The stakes are high for these "outside the hull" craft operations because the threats beyond the ship's hull are increasingly more capable and violent and the legal stakes are frequently international in nature. Positive control of these boats is also required for safety-at-sea in darkness and rough sea states. Under these conditions command and control (C2) functions similar to the capabilities of ships of the line are now required to be extended to the ship's manned craft in a distributed defensive and offensive role outside the hull of the ship. The ASNE topics list suggested "Engineering the Fighter Integer. into a Distributed Defense Architecture." This paper will address the potential threat scenarios, the associated C2 requirements for success, and postulate C2 solutions as available to the United States and allied navies for distributed defensive and offensive architectures for the manned boats beyond the hull of the ship: we call this, "C2 to the Tactical Edge." © 2011, American Society of Naval Engineers. Source

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