Lance R.M.,Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division |
Lance R.M.,Duke University |
Bass C.R.,Duke University
Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine | Year: 2015
The first cases of underwater blast injury appeared in the scientific literature in 1917, and thousands of service members and civilians were injured or killed by underwater blast during WWII. The prevalence of underwater blast injuries and occupational blasting needs led to the development of many safety standards to prevent injury or death. Most of these standards were not supported by experimental data or testing. In this review, we describe existing standards, discuss their origins, and we comprehensively compare their prescriptions across standards. Surprisingly, we found that most safety standards had little or no scientific basis, and prescriptions across standards often varied by at least an order of magnitude. Many published standards traced back to a US Navy 500 psi guideline, which was intended to provide a peak pressure at which injuries were likely to occur. This standard itself seems to have been based upon a completely unfounded assertion that has propagated throughout the literature in subsequent years. Based on the limitations of the standards discussed, we outline future directions for underwater blast injury research, such as the compilation of epidemiological data to examine actual injury risk by human beings subjected to underwater blasts. © 2015, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society. All right reserved.
Cobb J.T.,Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division |
Zare A.,University of Missouri
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013
In this paper we describe an unsupervised approach to seabed co-segmentation over the multiple sonar images collected in sonar surveys. We adapt a traditional single image segmentation texton-based approach to the sonar survey task by modifying the texture extraction filter bank to better model possible sonar image textures. Two different algorithms for building a universal texton library are presented that produce common pixel labels across multiple images. Following pixel labeling with the universal texton library, images are quantized into superpixels and co-segmented using a DP clustering algorithm. The segmentation results for both texton library selection criteria are contrasted and compared for a labeled set of SAS images with various discernable textures. © 2013 SPIE.
Gallagher D.G.,Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division
Underwater Intervention Conference 2011, UI 2011 | Year: 2011
Maritime-Port Security Dive Operations became a higher priority after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. These dive operations cross many geographic boundaries and regional jurisdictions, and are conducted by US Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), United States Coast Guard (USCG), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Public Safety Dive (PSD) Teams. They include underwater search of ship hulls, piers, pilings, docks, and bottom berthing areas for improvised explosive devices (IEDs), contraband, mines, and other threats - And routinely occur in dark or turbid water in near zero visibility conditions. Consequently, there is high interest in the development and fielding of technology and training that can decrease the time needed to search an underwater area, increase the probability that threats will be found, and decrease the inherent risk to divers. Technology and training that can be used by multiple agencies - military and civilian - is essential. In addition, the National Science and Technology Council?s Domestic IED Subcommittee has determined that effective Waterborne IED Detect and Defeat Systems are a National Critical Need. 1 The Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office (CTTSO) oversees interagency programs that develop advanced technologies and missionfocused solutions for joint service operators to address current and emerging maritime threats.11 Under the Maritime-Port Security Counterterrorism Initiative Program, the Naval Surface Warfare Center - Panama City division (NSWC PCD); in partnership with Florida State University-Panama City (FSU-PC) and Sound Metrics Corporation; has developed a Diver-based Rapid Response Capability for search, detection, location, and identification of waterborne threats. This capability is provided through a commercial acoustic-lens imaging sonar, an advanced military diver maskmounted display system, and a missionspecific portable training program that can be used by military and civilian agencies.
Suiter H.R.,Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012
When using flat windows between an air medium and one with higher index of refraction, the surface becomes optically active and a number of aberrations are induced. One affecting the optical control of a remotely-piloted underwater vehicle is the apparent pincushion distortion resulting from Snell's law at the interface. Small wide-angle lenses typically have the opposite problem, a barrel distortion caused by limitations in the number of lens surfaces and the constraints of cost. An experimental calibration is described in which the barrel distortion of the lens compensated for most of the inherent pincushion of the change in medium. ZEMAXTM models will be used to elucidate this phenomenon with a published lens design.* With careful selection of the lens and additional corrector, the resultant image can be made almost rectilinear, thus easing steering control and automatic target recognition. © 2012 SPIE.
Gallagher D.,Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division
Sea Technology | Year: 2012
Maritime security dive operations cross many geographic boundaries and regional jurisdictions. Performed routinely in dark or turbid water in near-zero visibility conditions, these operations include underwater searches of ship hulls, piers, docks and bottom berthing areas for contraband, mines and other threats. The US government's Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office oversees interagency programs that are developing technologies and solutions to address current and emerging maritime threats. Under its Maritime-Port Security. ROVs, AUVs and site-specific sensors are adding significant security response, monitoring and situational awareness for the maritime domain. However, divers remain an essential component to maritime domain security capability as they are a widely distributed, highly flexible, indigenous and rapidly deployable response asset. The Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division has developed a number of diver mask-mounted display systems.