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Salmon-Mulanovich G.,Naval Medical Research Unit No 6 | Lescano A.G.,U.S. Navy | Bausch D.G.,Naval Medical Research Unit No | Bausch D.G.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Dengue virus (DENV) was reintroduced to Peru in the 1990s and has been reported in Puerto Maldonado (population ∼65,000) in the Peruvian southern Amazon basin since 2000. This region also has the highest human migration rate in the country, mainly from areas not endemic for DENV. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of household income that is diverted to costs incurred because of dengue illness and to compare these expenses between recent migrants (RMs) and long-term residents (LTRs). We administered a standardized questionnaire to persons diagnosed with dengue illness at Hospital Santa Rosa in Puerto Maldonado from December 2012 to March 2013. We compared direct and indirect medical costs between RMs and LTRs. A total of 80 participants completed the survey, of whom 28 (35%) were RMs and 52 (65%) were LTRs. Each dengue illness episode cost the household an average of US$105 (standard deviation [SD] = 107), representing 24% of their monthly income. Indirect costs were the greatest expense (US$56, SD = 87), especially lost wages. The proportion of household income diverted to dengue illness did not differ significantly between RM and LTR households. The study highlights the significant financial burden incurred by households when a family member suffers dengue illness. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Chenet S.M.,Naval Medical Research Unit No | Chenet S.M.,Arizona State University | Tapia L.L.,Naval Medical Research Unit No | Escalante A.A.,Arizona State University | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal

Background: A major concern in malaria vaccine development is genetic polymorphisms typically observed among Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the world. Highly polymorphic regions have been observed in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigenic surface proteins such as Circumsporozoite protein (CSP), Duffy-binding protein (DBP), Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and Thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP). Methods. Genetic variability was assessed in important polymorphic regions of various vaccine candidate antigens in P. vivax among 106 isolates from the Amazon Region of Loreto, Peru. In addition, genetic diversity determined in Peruvian isolates was compared to population studies from various geographical locations worldwide. Results: The structured diversity found in P. vivax populations did not show a geographic pattern and haplotypes from all gene candidates were distributed worldwide. In addition, evidence of balancing selection was found in polymorphic regions of the trap, dbp and ama-1 genes. Conclusions: It is important to have a good representation of the haplotypes circulating worldwide when implementing a vaccine, regardless of the geographic region of deployment since selective pressure plays an important role in structuring antigen diversity. © 2012 Chenet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

McCollum A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | McCollum A.M.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | Soberon V.,Naval Medical Research Unit No | Salas C.J.,Naval Medical Research Unit No | And 9 more authors.
Malaria Journal

Background: Plasmodium vivax is a predominant species of malaria in parts of South America and there is increasing resistance to drugs to treat infections by P. vivax. The existence of latent hypnozoites further complicates the ability to classify recurrent infections as treatment failures due to relapse, recrudescence of hyponozoites or re-infections. Antigen loci are putatively under natural selection and may not be an optimal molecular marker to define parasite haplotypes in paired samples. Putatively neutral microsatellite loci, however, offer an assessment of neutral haplotypes. The objective here was to assess the utility of neutral microsatellite loci to reconcile cases of recurrent parasitaemia in Amazonian P. vivax populations in Peru. Methods. Patient blood samples were collected from three locations in or around Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon. Five putatively neutral microsatellite loci were characterized from 445 samples to ascertain the within and amongst population variation. A total of 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were characterized at microsatellite loci and five polymorphic antigen loci for haplotype classification. Results: The genetic diversity at microsatellite loci was consistent with neutral levels of variation measured in other South American P. vivax populations. Results between antigen and microsatellite loci for the 30 day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia samples were the same for 80% of the pairs. The majority of non-concordant results were the result of differing alleles at microsatellite loci. This analysis estimates that 90% of the paired samples with the same microsatellite haplotype are unlikely to be due to a new infection. Conclusions: A population-level approach was used to yield a better estimate of the probability of a new infection versus relapse or recrudescence of homologous hypnozoites; hypnozoite activation was common for this cohort. Population studies are critical with the evaluation of genetic markers to assess P. vivax biology and epidemiology. The additional demonstration of microsatellite loci as neutral markers capable of distinguishing the origin of the recurrent parasites (new infection or originating from the patient) lends support to their use in assessment of treatment outcomes. © 2014 McCollum et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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