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Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, United States

Cohn J.V.,U.S. Navy | Radparvar M.,Hypres Inc. | Combs D.J.,U.S. Navy | Anglero A.,Naval Safety Center | And 6 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method capable of producing high spatial resolution images of body structures and identifying injuries. However, conventional MRI systems use large superconducting magnets (≥ 1Tesla) that require high operating costs, long exam times, metal free environments, and are impractical to transport. Portable MRI systems using ultra-low magnetic fields in the micro- to milli-tesla range with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technology have been developed, but these systems generate low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), requiring very long averaging times to obtain modest spatial resolution. The initial phase of this project involved the development of a low field MRI system and resulted in the preliminary design of a transportable low-field (0.1 Tesla) MRI system, which has the advantages of ultra-low and high field MRI systems while avoiding their disadvantages. The current phase of the project is developing a small-scale portable low-field MRI system prototype of the full sized system. Development of this technology will have significant applications in both commercial and military settings. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Cohn J.V.,U.S. Navy | Combs D.J.,U.S. Navy | Anglero Jr. A.,Naval Safety Center | Johnson B.R.,United States Air Force Academy | And 6 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

This effort aims to develop a software-based decision tool for determining the actual return on investment of medical modeling and simulation based training technologies to provide acquisition decision makers with critical information for system design. This will ultimately improve the effectiveness and efficiency of current health services. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Cohn J.V.,U.S. Navy | Freedy A.,Perceptonics Solutions Inc | Chabuk T.,Perceptonics Solutions Inc | Weltman G.,Perceptonics Solutions Inc | And 8 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2013

Communication is difficult in low income areas, given the lack of land based telecommunication and distances between population centers [1]. New methods to monitor/forecast epidemiological trends will enable our military to execute emerging operational requirements. Hand held devices, such as cell phones, smart phones and personal data assistants (PDAs) provide an effective source for collecting, analyzing and widely disseminating healthcare information, because of their widespread use in the very regions to which our military forces are, and will be, deployed. This effort develops handheld device applications that provide health surveillance, epidemiological analysis and forecasting capabilities. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

Hartzler B.M.,Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

The detrimental effects of fatigue in aviation are well established, as evidenced by both the number of fatigue-related mishaps and numerous studies which have found that most pilots experience a deterioration in cognitive performance as well as increased stress during the course of a flight. Further, due to the nature of the average pilot's work schedule, with frequent changes in duty schedule, early morning starts, and extended duty periods, fatigue may be impossible to avoid. Thus, it is critical that fatigue countermeasures be available which can help to combat the often overwhelming effects of sleep loss or sleep disruption. While stimulants such as caffeine are typically effective at maintaining alertness and performance, such countermeasures do nothing to address the actual source of fatigue - insufficient sleep. Consequently, strategic naps are considered an efficacious means of maintaining performance while also reducing the individual's sleep debt. These types of naps have been advocated for pilots in particular, as opportunities to sleep either in the designated rest facilities or on the flight deck may be beneficial in reducing both the performance and alertness impairments associated with fatigue, as well as the subjective feelings of sleepiness. Evidence suggests that strategic naps can reduce subjective feelings of fatigue and improve performance and alertness. Despite some contraindications to implementing strategic naps while on duty, such as sleep inertia experienced upon awakening, both researchers and pilots agree that the benefits associated with these naps far outweigh the potential risks. This article is a literature review detailing both the health and safety concerns of fatigue among commercial pilots as well as benefits and risks associated with strategic napping to alleviate this fatigue.

Harshman S.W.,Air Force Research Lab | Geier B.A.,Infoscitex Corporation | Fan M.,Air Force Research Lab | Rinehardt S.,Air Force Research Lab | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Breath Research | Year: 2015

Pilots have reported experiencing in-flight hypoxic-like symptoms since the inception of high-altitude aviation. As a result, the need to monitor pilots, in-flight, for the onset of hypoxic conditions is of great interest to the aviation community. We propose that exhaled breath is an appropriate non-invasive medium for monitoring pilot hypoxic risk through volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis. To identify changes in the exhaled breath VOCs produced during periods of reduced O2 levels, volunteers were exposed to simulated flight profiles, i.e. sea level for 5 min, O2 levels found at elevated altitudes for 5 min or placebo and 5 min at 100% O2 recovery gas, using a modified flight mask interfaced with a reduced O2 breathing device. During the course of these test events, time series breath samples from the flight mask and pre/post bag samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven compounds (pentanal, 4-butyrolactone, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methylheptane and 2-heptanone) were found to significantly change in response to hypoxic conditions. Additionally, the isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, was found to increase following the overall exposure profile. This study establishes an experimental means for monitoring changes in VOCs in response to hypoxic conditions, a computational workflow for compound analysis via the Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab and MatLab® software and identifies potential volatile organic compound biomarkers of hypoxia exposure. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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