Krefeld, Germany
Krefeld, Germany

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Heerten G.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Peters K.,IMS Ingenieurgesellschaft MbH
Geotechnik | Year: 2011

The increasing erection of offshore wind energy generators in the North Sea raises questions about the long-term stability of such structures. Extensive foundation structures in water depths of 10 to 60 m are a significant cost factor compared to land installation. Questions about scour development and measures to protect against scour need to be investigated and solved. In contrast to traditional scour protection provided by tipping mineral components, geotechnical plastics are of increasing interest, because they permit the use of undisturbed ground on the site, are relatively simple and safe to install and also no damage to cable entries or corrosion protection of steel structures needs to be worried about. The article reports on experience so far with scour and scour protection for offshore facilities in the North Sea and the state of the technology in the design, filling and installation of sand containers made of geotextiles around the foundations of offshore wind energy facilities and also refers to investigations already performed. © 2011 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.


Von Maubeuge K.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Egloffstein T.,Czurda und Partner MbH | Vollmert L.,BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH and Co. KG
15th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ARC 2015: New Innovations and Sustainability | Year: 2015

Worldwide more and more road noise and view-blocking barriers are being built along roads, motorways and railway lines, with a core that is made from mineral waste. This waste material can be in the form of slag, ash from municipal waste incineration plants or contaminated soil from the rehabilitation of contaminated sites, residue from construction waste recycling or industrial processing residue (slag, ash, foundry sands, conditioned sludges etc.). These waste products have to meet certain environmental-chemical requirements and must be provided with a surface sealing for groundwater protection. This sealing system can be designed as a mineral sealing (compacted clay liner, CCL) or it can be made of geosynthetic material (geosynthetic clay liners GCL, geomembranes). The commonly required drainage layer can also be of gravel or crushed stone or it can comprise geosynthetic materials (geosynthetic drainage system). Many noise barriers have relatively steep slopes because there is limited space and the higher the barrier and the steeper the slope the greater the noise protection. The sealing and drainage systems therefore frequently require reinforcement in the form of geogrids to ensure slope stability.


Klompmaker J.,BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH and Co. KG | Pohlmann H.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG
GA 2012 - 5th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics: Geosynthetics for Sustainable Adaptation to Climate Change | Year: 2012

The reduction of energy consumption and emission of climate gases like CO2 is a big challenge for the global industry. Practical greenhouse gas reduction actions can help reducing the risks from a warming climate and deliver considerable economic benefits. Economic and ecological advantages of construction methods using geosynthetics are already well known. The reduction of excavation masses and truck transport in areas with soft soil conditions by using geogrid soil reinforcement technology is only one of many examples. This paper will illustrate the potential in reduction of the carbon footprint by comparing and evaluating the cumulated energy demand (CED) and the climate related CO2 emissions for the complete life cycle of the used building materials for conventional construction methods vs. geosynthetic construction alternatives in infrastructural applications.


Von Maubeuge K.P.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Ehrenberg H.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG
GA 2012 - 5th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics: Geosynthetics for Sustainable Adaptation to Climate Change | Year: 2012

Multi-Component Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) are a new variation of GCLs and are fast growing in the current sealing applications. During the manufacturing process the "classic" geosynthetic clay liners is combined with either an attached film, coating, or membrane that can decreases the hydraulic conductivity of the product but can also add other features. ASTM D 6496 and EN ISO test methods give some guidance for testing the peel strength of GCLs. However, in the past multi-component GCLs were not tested according to ASTM or EN ISO test methods. To be able to suggest modifications on these test methods it is necessary to investigate the methods with current multi-component GCLs. Therefore this paper will present results on peel and shear data under varying conditions. Findings in how to separate the coating or adhered film and how the can be used in current test apparatus will be discussed. In the past correlation data between shear and peel were published and will be updated with multi-component GCLs. The results of peel and internal shear testing will be evaluated, compared and presented in this paper. Furthermore external shear test with different multi-component Geosynthetic Clay Liners against different soil types will be presented and discussed in this paper. This basic work will then be further discussed during ASTM for the development of a Standard test method for Peel testing for multi-Component Geosynthetic Clay Liners.


Ehrenberg H.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Von Maubeuge K.P.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG
ASTM Special Technical Publication | Year: 2013

Multi-component geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are a new variation of GCLs or GBR-Cs (Geosynthethic Clay Barriers - CEN and ISO definition) and are fast growing in the current sealing applications. During the manufacturing process, the "classic" geosynthetic clay liners are combined with either an adhered film, coating, or membrane that can decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the product but can also add other-features. ASTM D5887 [2009, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Index Flux through Saturated Geosynthetic Clay Liner Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA] is the standard test method for hydraulic testing/testing the index flux through saturated geosynthetic clay liner specimens using a flexible wall permeameter. It gives guidance for testing procedures and apparatus but it is noted in the standard that it may not be applicable to GCL products with geomembrane backing(s). In this paper, results will be shown of the testing of the different multi-component geosynthetic clay liners using exactly the ASTM D5887 procedure. Further modifications will be discussed to allow testing according to this method and suggestions for a new method will be presented. Copyright © 2013 by ASTM International.


Boley C.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Zou Y.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Von Maubeuge K.P.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG
10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, ICG 2014 | Year: 2014

Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are hydraulic barriers used as single liners or as a part of a composite lining in various applications, such as landfill caps, base seals, canal liners or in environmental protection applications (Köditz et al., 2004). In order to investigate the behavior of GCLs under hydraulic pressure, the influences of local damages and overlapping of GCLs on sealing effect of GCLs, experiments were performed using two different GCLs as test materials under different test conditions (saturated or air-dried GCLs, coating facing the water pressure or on the outstream side, GCLs with or without mechanical damages (manual holes), GCLs with or without overlap). The experimental results have showed that GCLs have three different forms of failure: 1) holes forming and expanding; 2) tearing of coating; 3) separation of overlap. The thickness of the coating influences the strength and the maximum stretching of GCLs. The coating of GCLs toward pressure water is more favorable than backward pressure water. Saturated GCLs have higher strength and lager stretching than air-dried. The strength of the previously damaged GCLs is independent of the degree of saturation of GCLs. The mechanical damages influence the strength and the maximum stretching of GCLs and the overlapping of GCLs reduces the strength of GCLs.


Von Maubeuge K.P.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Ehrenberg H.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG
10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, ICG 2014 | Year: 2014

Since over 20 years Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) - also known as Geosynthetic Clay Barriers (GBR-C) - have been successfully installed and used in many sealing applications. Research carried out by manufacturers, universities and other organizations have concentrated on several topics such as hydraulic conductivity, gas permeability, shear strength, performance of GCLs under changing conditions, i.e. freeze/thaw or dry/wet cycles, or damage during installation. This is only a part of the large list of issues investigated. After growing confidence for the sealing system GCLs are capable of substituting most compacted clay liners or sand/bentonite soils, GCLs were adopted in several regulations as a state-of-practice sealing element. A topic which has never been really investigated or published is the realistic bentonite minimum mass per unit area requirements of the GCL components. This paper will concentrate and present data on the bentonite layer showing what the lowest mass per unit area of the bentonite layer must be to allow the GCL to achieve the usually quoted manufacturers hydraulic performance value (typically index flux, permittivity and hydraulic conductivity). However, the mass per unit area is an important factor, especially if calculating from index flux to hydraulic conductivity. This paper will also discuss the difference between hydraulic conductivity, permittivity and index flux.


Heerten G.,RWTH Aachen | Heerten G.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Werth K.,BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH and Co. KG
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Ground Improvement | Year: 2012

Following past flood disasters in Europe, safe and modern levee cross-sections have been implemented using geosynthetics. The use of filter nonwovens between the levee core and drainage and up-lift ballast berms at the inner levee embankment, or the arrangement of geosynthetic clay liners (bentonite mats, GCLs) at the outer levee embankment are included along with well-established alternatives in current guidelines. The efficiency of stabilisation measures with geosynthetics integrated into the levee has been investigated and the high stability of these construction methods in the case of overtopping has been documented. Erosion at the inner levee embankment and unexpected levee failures can be prevented or delayed. The likelihood that such levees will break is minimal because the earthen levee cannot be eroded. This approach to dramatically improving the safety of levees by integrating geosynthetics into the levee cross-section could significantly reduce danger and potential flood damage in many parts of the world.


Maubeuge K.V.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG. | Klompmaker J.,BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH and Co. KG
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

The reinforcing properties (e.g. bars, straps, filaments), the geogrid properties, the thickness of the soil or the soil type and the durability properties of a geogrid greatly influence the construction project scope, design, product selection and expected service life in a road construction. When a geogrid is inserted into a base course layer, there are several properties which affect the long-term performance of the design. It is not only a single property such as the stiffness and strength of a geogrid. At the end the integrity of the installation needs to be protected in all directions. Therefore even if the general application of a geogrid in a base course sounds simple it is a complex summary of properties which work hand in hand. This paper will list mechanical properties of geogrids used in base courses of flexible pavements, which are currently considered to provide benefit for the performance of this composite layer. Furthermore a new design method for geosynthetic reinforced flexible pavements, the so called mechanistic-empirical design method will be described and experimental results for a laid and welded geogrid and geocomposite will be presented. The results will finally be compared to the Giroud & Noiray (1981) design method. © ASCE 2011.


Heerten G.,NAUE GmbH and Co. KG | Werth K.,BBG Bauberatung Geokunststoffe GmbH and Co. KG
WasserWirtschaft | Year: 2013

The use of geosynthetics as filter and drainage layer is increasing worldwide. Based on project specific requirements corresponding products have to be designed and selected, but also be installed without damage, because a potential puncture of geotextiles makes the filter design needless. Analogies for the design of grain filters and geosynthetic filters are presented as well as robustness criteria for a safe installation of geotextiles. In the 80 m high rockfill dam Frauenau in Germany geotextiles have been applied in a safety-relevant position in the core of the dam. The dam is in successful operation and condition since about 30 years with long-term monitoring showing very little leachate in the control gallery.

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