NaturoBioTech Co.

Suigen, South Korea

NaturoBioTech Co.

Suigen, South Korea
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Hong T.-K.,Seoul National University | Kim S.-I.,Seoul National University | Heo J.-W.,NaturoBioTech Co. | Lee J.-K.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2011

The toxicity of Kaempferia galanga rhizome constituents to second-stage juveniles (J2) and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita was examined in vitro and in container experiments. Results were compared with those of three nematicides: carbofuran, fosthiazate and metam sodium. Ethyl cinnamate (EC) and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EMC) were the nematicidal and hatch inhibitory principles. In direct-contact mortality bioassays, EC 0.037 mg ml-1) and EMC (0.041 mg ml-1) were more toxic than carbofuran (0.092 mg ml -1) but less toxic than fosthiazate (0.002 mg ml-1) towards J2 based upon 48 h LC50 values. EC and EMC treatments resulted in 100% and 93 and 81% inhibition of hatch at 125.0 and 62.5 μg ml-1, respectively. Inhibition of these compounds was higher than carbofuran and metam sodium but significantly lower than fosthiazate. In contact +fumigant mortality bioassays with J2, EC and EMC applied at 0.25 and 0.125 mg (g soil)-1resulted in 81 and 80% and 77 and 73% mortality, respectively, while carbofuran and metam sodium treatments resulted in 86 and 96% and 57 and 73% mortality, respectively. Fosthiazate resulted in 92% mortality at 0.063 mg (g soil)-1. In vapour-phase mortality bioassays with J2, EC and EMC were more effective in a closed container than in an open one, indicating that mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic nematicides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on K. galanga rhizome-derived materials, particularly ethyl cinnamate and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, as potential nematicides and hatching inhibitors for the control of M. incognita as fumigants with contact action. © 2011 BRILL.


Hong T.-K.,Seoul National University | Lee J.-K.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Heo J.-W.,NaturoBioTech Co. | Kim S.-I.,Seoul National University | And 2 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2010

The toxicity of Kaempferia galanga rhizome-derived methanol extract (RME), powder (RP) and steam distillate (RSD) to Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and eggs, and their effects on Lycopersicon esculentum germination and growth were examined in vitro and in pot experiments. Results were compared with those of three nematicides: carbofuran, fosthiazate and metam sodium. In contact + fumigant bioassays with J2, RME applied at 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg (g soil)-1 resulted in 92, 88 and 73% mortality, respectively. The lethality of RME was almost the same as carbofuran but lower than that of either fosthiazate or metam sodium. RSD and RP were less active than RME. In vapour-phase mortality bioassays with J2, the test materials were more effective in a closed container than in an open one, indicating that mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In direct-contact mortality bioassays with M. incognita eggs, RME, RSD and fosthiazate treatments resulted in 91, 100 and 95% inhibition of hatch at 250 μg ml-1 and 82, 88 and 81% inhibition of hatch at 100 μg ml-1, respectively. In filter paper bioassays with L. esculentum seed, 8.8 μg cm-2 RME and RP did not cause germination inhibition, while RSD and fosthiazate treatments resulted in 84 and 13% germination inhibition. In pot tests, RME and RSD applied at 8 mg (g soil)-1 reduced galling caused by M. incognita significantly, and fosthiazate at 0.02 mg (g soil)-1 stopped galling completely. Kaempferia galanga rhizome-derived materials, particularly a methanol extract, merit further study as potential nematicides and hatching inhibitors for the control of M. incognita as fumigants with contact action. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010.


Chae S.-H.,Seoul National University | Kim S.-I.,Seoul National University | Yeon S.-H.,NaturoBiotech Co. | Lee S.-W.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Ahn Y.-J.,Seoul National University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The residual contact toxicity of three benzofuranoids (Z)- butylidenephthalide (1), (3S)-butylphthalide (2), and (Z)-ligustilide (3) identified in the rhizome of Cnidium officinale (Apiaceae) to B- and Q-biotype females of Bemisia tabaci was evaluated using a leaf-dip bioassay. Results were compared with those of eight conventional insecticides. Based on 24 h LC 50 values, (Z)-butylidenephthalide (254 ppm) and (Z)-ligustilide (268 ppm) were more toxic than (3S)-butylphthalide (339 ppm) against B-biotype females, whereas (Z)-ligustilide (254 ppm) and (3S)-butylphthalide (338 ppm) were more toxic than (Z)-butylidenephthalide (586 ppm) against Q-biotype females. Thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid differ significantly in toxicity between the B- and Q-biotype females (LC 50, 1.7 to 11.6 vs 364.5 to >3000 ppm). This original finding indicates that the phthalides and the neonicotinoids do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. Structure-activity relationship indicates that the presence of conjugation rather than aromaticity appeared to play an important role for phthalide toxicities to the B-biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on C. officinale rhizome-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of B. tabaci populations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Kim S.-I.,Seoul National University | Chae S.-H.,Seoul National University | Youn H.-S.,NaturoBiotech Co. | Yeon S.-H.,NaturoBiotech Co. | Ahn Y.-J.,Seoul National University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: The contact + fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils and control efficacy of 18 experimental spray formulations containing nine selected essential oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and six commercial insecticides to females from B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci were evaluated using vapour-phase mortality and spray bioassays. Results: Garlic and oregano (LC50, 0.15 mL cm-3) were the most toxic oils against B- and Q-biotype females. Strong fumigant toxicity to both biotype females was also obtained from catnip, cinnamon bark, clove bud, clove leaf, davana, savory and vetiver Haiti oils (LC50, 0.17-0.48 mL cm-3). The 0.5% sprays of these oils (except for thyme red oil) resulted in 90-100% mortality against both biotype females. Only garlic applied as 0.1% spray provided 100% mortality. Spinosad 100 g L-1 suspension concentrate (SC) treatment resulted in 92 and 95% mortality against both biotype females, whereas acetamiprid 80 g L-1 wettable powder (WP), imidacloprid 80 g L-1 SC, thiamethoxam 100 g L-1 water-dispersible granule (WDG) and pyridaben 200 g L-1 WP treatments resulted in 89-100% mortality against B-biotype females only. Conclusion: In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the essential oils described, particularly garlic, cinnamon bark and vetiver Haiti, merit further study as potential insecticides for the control of B. tabaci populations as fumigants with contact action. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Han J.,Seoul National University | Choi B.-R.,Seoul National University | Choi B.-R.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee S.-G.,Seoul National University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyrresistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectinresistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 g/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.623.7 g/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], >9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, >390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively, Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 g/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 g/cm3. N. californicus was 12 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

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