Stock M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries |
Grifoni G.,University of Lausanne |
Armor N.,Biotechnology Institute of Monastir |
Armor N.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology |
And 3 more authors.
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2015
In contrast to oceanic, continental islands are expected to show less diversification and endemism and thus phylogeographic signatures of multiple colonization events from adjacent continents due to episodic connections by sea level changes. In order to test this situation for the herpetofauna of Sicily, we here focus on three amphibian and four reptile species-groups and investigate their phylogeographic relationships across the Sicily and Messina straits, where Plio-Pleistocene marine transgressions shortened the distances between (or connected) Sicily, North Africa and/or the Italian (Apennine) Peninsula. Using a multi-species, multi-marker phylogeographic approach (mitochondrial cytochrome b; 16S rDNA, nuclear intron of tropomyosin), we apply Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic methods and haplotype networks to examine the phylogenies, and to estimate divergence times from molecular data using the program BEAST. We recognize three colonization patterns: (i) Plio-Pleistocene colonization of Sicily from North Africa for the skinks Chalcides chalcides (1.8. Mya) and Chalcides ocellatus (0.61. My), (ii) Pleistocene colonization from the Italian Peninsula for the anurans Pelophylax spp. (0.81. Mya) and Bufo bufo (late Pleistocene), and (iii) recent (late Pleistocene to Holocene), natural or man-mediated out-of-Africa dispersal for the anuran Discoglossus pictus and out-of-Africa human introduction for the gekkonid lizards Tarentola mauritanica and Hemidactylus turcicus. The Sicilian herpetofauna shows phylogeographic signatures as typical of continental islands, with limited diversification and endemism. Colonization by terrestrial amphibians and reptiles from adjacent continents appears shaped by interactions of the active geo-marine history along with species' ecology and human intervention, including a widely neglected faunal contribution from Africa. On some small islands and in Tunisia, we found isolated local populations significant for conservation. Our results underline how only multispecies approaches involving ecologically diverse taxa are able to reveal the complexity of faunal contributions to large continental islands like Sicily. © 2015.
Mischke S.,Free University of Berlin |
Bossneck U.,Naturkundemuseum Erfurt |
Diekmann B.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research |
Herzschuh U.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Paleolimnology | Year: 2010
A calibration data set of 51 surface sediment samples from Lake Donggi Cona on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was investigated to study the relationship between sub-fossil ostracod assemblages and water depth. Samples were collected over a depth range from 0.6 to 80 m. A total of 16 ostracod species was identified from the lake with bout half of the species restricted to the Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent mountain ranges and poorly known in terms of ecological preferences, and the other half displaying a mainly Holarctic distribution. Living macrophytes and macroalgae were recorded in Lake Donggi Cona down to a depth of about 30 m, and bivalve (Pisidium cf. zugmayeri) and gastropod (Gyraulus, Radix) shells were found down to depths of 43 and 48 m, respectively. The ostracod-water epth relationship was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis and ostracod-based transfer functions for water depth were constructed. Weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) regression provided the best model with a coefficient of determination r 2 of 0.91 between measured and ostracod-inferred water depth, a root mean square error of prediction of 8% and a maximum bias of 10.6% of the gradient length, as assessed by leave ne-out cross-validation. Our results show the potential of ostracods as palaeo-depth indicators in appropriate settings. However, transfer-function applications using fossil ostracod assemblages for palaeo-depth estimations require a thorough understanding of the palaeolimnological conditions of lakes and therefore detailed multi-proxy analysis to avoid misinterpretation of ostracod-based inferences. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
PubMed | Naturkundemuseum Erfurt and University of Hamburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016
Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Mller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island land in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran.
Neubert E.,Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde Bern |
Bossneck U.,Naturkundemuseum Erfurt
Archiv fur Molluskenkunde | Year: 2013
A new species of Vitrea, Vitrea saboorii n. sp. from Iran is described, and its relationship to other species is briefly discussed. © E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller), 2013.