Campanaro A.,Corpo Forestale dello Stato Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana Mantova Italy |
Zapponi L.,National Research Council Italy |
Hardersen S.,Corpo Forestale dello Stato Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversita Forestale Bosco Fontana Mantova Italy |
Mendez M.,Rey Juan Carlos University |
And 19 more authors.
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2016
Developing protocols for threatened invertebrates is often challenging, because they are not only rare but also elusive. This is the case with the stag beetle (Lucanus cervus), a protected and flagship species for the saproxylic beetle fauna in Europe. We applied a standard transect walk at a European scale (8 countries, 29 transects) to test its practicability and reliability as survey design. A total of 533 sightings were recorded throughout the sampling period, but detection probability changed as the season progressed. Considering the observed activity pattern, occupancy models showed that a short period of three consecutive weeks, between the middle of June and the first week of July, resulted in a high probability of detection (P > 0.7). As time of the peak of activity varies from year to year and between sites, we propose to extend the sampling period to five weekly surveys. Detailed information on the transect characteristics and the optimal time for surveying were analysed. The data indicate that a weekly transect at dusk provides a reliable method for monitoring this species throughout its distributional range. No correlation was found between latitude, longitude and phenology of sightings, however. However, a standard method such as the one presented, allows broadening the scale of monitoring studies, provinding data to evaluate the efficacy of conservation measures. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.
Costeur L.,Naturhistorisches Museum Basel Basel Switzerland |
Mennecart B.,Naturhistorisches Museum Basel Basel Switzerland |
Muller B.,University of Basel |
Schulz G.,University of Basel
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2016
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region. We computed tomography -scanned five cow foetuses and an adult petrosal bone (Bos taurus, Artiodactyla, Mammalia), and describe the bony labyrinth when already ossified. The foetuses encompass the second half of the 9.3-month-long gestation period of the cow. They were sampled at different ontogenetic stages to understand how and when the petrosal bone and bony labyrinth ossify in ruminants. The petrosal bone and bony labyrinth ossify within about 20 days in the fourth month of gestation. The bony labyrinth is already fully ossified at least in the 6th month, while only the cochlea, most of the vestibule and the common crus are already ossified at the beginning of the 4th month. The pars canalicularis of the petrosal thus ossifies at last. The size and volume of the bony labyrinth stay similar from the 6th month (possibly even from the 5th). From the end of the 4th month of gestation, a progressive lengthening of the cochlear aqueduct and endolymphatic sac occurs, culminating in the adult form and partly explaining the larger volume of the later. The inner ear in the cow ossifies quickly during the gestation period, being fully ossified around mid-gestation time, as in humans. The adult size and most of its volume are reached by mid-gestation time while the petrosal bone and skull still grow. A negative ontogenetic allometry between the bony labyrinth and the petrosal bone and skull is thus observed. It matches the evolutionary negative allometry of the structure observed in earlier studies. Few changes occur after ossification is achieved; only open structures (i.e. cochlear aqueduct and endolymphatic sac) continue to grow after birth and reflect size increase of the petrosal bone. © 2016 Anatomical Society.