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Taipei, Taiwan
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Yang Y.-C.,National Ilan University | Chen C.-N.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Wu C.-I.,National Ilan University | Huang W.-J.,Taipei Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

NBM-T-L-BMX-OS01 (BMX) was derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., and was identified to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC8. This study shows that HDAC8 is highly expressed in the pancreas and the brain. The function of HDAC8 in the brain has not been adequately studied. Because BMX enhances neurite outgrowth and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation, the effect of BMX on neural plasticity such as learning and memory is examined. To examine declarative and nondeclarative memory, a water maze, a passive one-way avoidance task, and a novel object recognition task were performed. Results from the water maze revealed that BMX and suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-(SAHA-) treated rats showed shorter escape latency in finding the hidden platform. The BMX-treated animals spent more time in the target quadrant in the probe trial performance. An analysis of the passive one-way avoidance results showed that the BMX-treated animals stayed longer in the illuminated chamber by 1 day and 7 days after footshock. The novel object recognition task revealed that the BMX-treated animals showed a marked increase in the time spent exploring novel objects. Furthermore, BMX ameliorates scopolamine-(Sco-) induced learning and memory impairment in animals, indicating a novel role of BMX in learning and memory. © 2013 Ying-Chen Yang et al.


Suk F.-M.,Taipei Medical University | Lien G.-S.,Taipei Medical University | Huang W.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Chen C.-N.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Activating transcription factor-(ATF-) 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002) is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG) derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK), and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug. © 2013 Fat-Moon Suk et al.


Huang C.-Y.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Chi L.-L.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Huang W.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Chen Y.-W.,National Ilan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Royal jelly (RJ) is a widely used natural food. It is also a major source of nutrition for queen bees and plays a key role in their development. RJ is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. The regulation of gene expression in these two glands may influence the development of queen bees by affecting the content of RJ. This study investigated the epigenetic effects in these two glands in young adult worker bees treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and NBM-HD-1, a novel compound synthesized in this laboratory. Western blot analyses indicated that the levels of acetyl-histone 3 and p21 protein expression in MCF-7 cells increased markedly after treatment with NBM-HD-1. The data proved that NBM-HD-1 was a novel and potent HDACi. Furthermore, a method of affecting epigenetic regulation of the mrjp family gene in the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees was developed by feeding young adult worker bees HDACi. Epigenetic regulation produced several important biological effects. A marked change in the protein composition of the RJ secreted from these treated bees was found. Only the ratio of specific major royal jelly protein 3 (MRJP3) was significantly altered in the treated bees versus the untreated controls. Other MRJP family proteins did not change. This alteration in the ratio of royal jelly proteins resulted in a significant increase in the body size of queen bee larvae. The data seem to suggest that HDACis may play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. They appear to change mrjp3 gene expression and alter the ratio of MRJP3 protein in RJ. This study presents the first evidence that HDACis are capable of regulating the ratio of MRJP3 proteins in RJ, which has the potential to change the body size of queen bees during their development. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Sun L.-P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen A.-L.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Hung H.-C.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Chien Y.-H.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Chinese propolis (CP) is a natural product collected by honeybees and a health food raw material. Previous studies have shown that CP exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. The focuses of the present study were the standardization of CP and the possible mechanisms of its active anticancer ingredients. Nine samples of CP were collected from different locations in China. Analyses of the CP samples revealed that all 9 had similar chemical compositions. Parameters analyzed included the CP extract dry weight, total phenolic content, and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The active anticancer ingredient was isolated, characterized against human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and identified as chyrsin, a known potent anticancer compound. Chrysin is present at high levels in all 9 of the CP samples, constituting approximately 2.52% to 6.38% of the CP extracts. However, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), another potent active ingredient is present in low levels in 9 samples of CP, constituting approximately 0.08% to 1.71% of the CP extracts. Results from analyses of enzymatic activity indicated that chrysin is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and that it markedly inhibited HDAC8 enzymatic activity (EC50 = 40.2 μM). In vitro analyses demonstrated that chrysin significantly suppressed cell growth and induced differentiation in MDA-MB-231 cells. In a xenograft animal model (MDA-MB-231 cells), orally administered chrysin (90 mg/kg/day) significantly inhibited tumor growth. Despite the geographical diversity of the 9 samples botanical origins, their chemical compositions and several analyzed parameters were similar, suggesting that CP is standardized, with chrysin being the major active ingredient. Overall, in vitro and in vivo data indicated that chrysin is an HDAC8 inhibitor, which can significantly inhibit tumor growth. Data also suggested that chrysin might represent a suitable candidate for standardization of CP. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Chen C.-N.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Hsiao C.-J.,National Taiwan University | Lee S.-S.,National Taiwan University | Guh J.-H.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Research | Year: 2012

Our previous studies demonstrated that eight prenylated flavanones (1-8), isolated from Taiwanese propolis, were capable of a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among them, nymphaeol A (3), nymphaeol B (4) and nymphaeol C (7), abundant in Taiwanese propolis, exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. It therefore seemed interesting to improve their activity via a semi-synthetic strategy. In this study, 12 novel prenylated flavanones were synthesised in our laboratory and their activities were assessed for two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a human hepatoma cell line, Hep-3B. Of these compounds, 10c, 11 and 12 showed more potent cytotoxicity against the PC-3 cell line than 5-Fu. Using cytometric analysis followed by double staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide, it was observed that these compounds induced apoptosis as well. This suggests that prenylated flavanones 10c, 11 and 12 may have anticancer potential for further development. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Huang W.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Liang Y.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Chuang S.-E.,National Health Research Institute | Chi L.-L.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | And 8 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have been developed as promising anticancer agents in recent years. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel HDACi, termed NBM-HD-1. This agent was derived from the semisynthesis of propolin G, isolated from Taiwanese green propolis (TGP), and was shown to be a potent suppressor of tumor cell growth in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and rat glioma cells (C6), with an IC50 ranging from 8.5 to 10.3M. Western blot demonstrated that levels of p21((Waf1/Cip1)), gelsolin, Ac-histone 4, and Ac-tubulin markedly increased after treatment of cancer cells with NBM-HD-1. After NBM-HD-1 treatment for 14h, p-PTEN and p-AKT levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, we also found the anticancer activities of NBM-HD-1 in regulating cell cycle regulators. Treatment with NBM-HD-1, p21(Waf1/Cip1) gene expression had markedly increased while cyclin B1 and D1 gene expressions had markedly decreased. On the other hand, we found that NBM-HD-1 increased the expressions of tumor-suppressor gene p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that NBM-HD-1 exhibited potent antitumor activity in a xenograft model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that this compound, NBM-HD-1, is a novel and potent HDACi with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. © 2012 Wei-Jan Huang et al.


Popova M.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Chen C.-N.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Chen P.-Y.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Huang C.-Y.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Bankova V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2010

Introduction - Because of its chemical diversity, the only way to standardise propolis is to specify multiple standards for different propolis types according to the corresponding chemical profile. So far, this has been done only for European propolis. Objective - To develop a rapid low-cost spectrophotometric procedure for quantification of bioactive prenylated flavanones in Taiwanese propolis. Methodology - The proposed method quantifies the total flavanones on the basis of their absorption as coloured phenylhydrazones formed by interaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The procedure was validated through model mixture of compounds representing the composition of Taiwanese propolis according to previous studies. The major flavanones of the propolis samples (propolins C, D, F and G) were quantified by HPLC. Antiradical activity against DPPH was also measured. The DNP (dinitrophenylhydrazine) spectrophotometric method is applied for the first time for quantification of prenylated flavanones. Results - Spectophotometric procedure applicable to new type propolis (Macaranga type) was developed with recovery between 105 and 110% at the concentration range of 0.573-1.791 mg/mL. Six propolis samples were analysed by spectrophotometry using the procedure developed and validated, and by HPLC as the results demonstrated satisfactory agreement. Neither the spectrophotometric data nor the values measured by HPLC showed significant correlation with the antiradical activity against DPPH. Conclusion - The proposed spectrophotometric procedure is useful for routine analyses of Macaranga-type propolis, because of its simplicity, repeatability and acceptable accuracy. Its application to a number of commercial samples could be used as a basis for standardisation and quality control of Pacific propolis. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Yang H.-Y.,Taipei Medical University | Hsu Y.-F.,Landseed Hospital | Chiu P.-T.,Taipei Medical University | Ho S.-J.,NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Angiogenesis occurs during tissue growth, development and wound healing. It is also required for tumor progression and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX), derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, an active ingredient isolated from Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., was recently shown to enhance learning and memory in rats. In this study, we characterized the anti-angiogenic activities of NBM-T-BMX-OS01 (BMX) in an effort to develop novel inhibitors to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. BMX inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and endothelial tube formation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). BMX also attenuated VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and reduced HCT116 colorectal cancer cells-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, BMX inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, FAK, Akt and ERK in HUVECs exposed to VEGF. BMX was also shown to inhibit HCT116 cell proliferation and to suppress the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of HCT116 cells in vivo. Taken together, this study provides evidence that BMX modulates vascular endothelial cell remodeling and leads to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These results also support the role of BMX as a potential drug candidate and warrant the clinical development in the treatment of cancer. © 2013 Yang et al.


Huang W.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Wu C.-L.,Tamkang University | Lin C.-W.,Naturewise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | Chi L.-L.,Naturewise Biotech and Medicals Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2010

Liverwort constituents have been reported to exert a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this study, we used a bioactivity-guided separation of an extract from the liverwort species Marchantia emarginata subsp. tosana to determine its anticancer activity. A high level of the active ingredient was isolated from this liverwort and its chemical structure was identified and characterized by various spectra. It was found to be identical to a well-known compound, marchantin A, a cyclic bisbibenzyl ether. However, no anticancer activities of this compound have previously been reported. We found that marchantin A efficiently induced cell growth inhibition in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.0 μg/mL. Fluorescence microscopy and a Western blot analysis indicated that marchantin A actively induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. The levels of cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) increased. However, the level of Bid markedly decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also evaluated the anticancer activities of marchantin A on the regulation of cell cycle regulators such as p21, p27, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1. The p21 and p27 gene expressions increased markedly while cyclin B1 and D1 gene expression decreased markedly by treatment with marchantin A. Many report demonstrated that liverwort was suggested to possess potent antioxidant activity. Our results indicate that marchantin A possesses free radical-scavenging activity (EC50 = 20 μg/mL). Taken together, for the first time, the compound marchantin A from liverworts demonstrated to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | NatureWise Biotech and Medicals Corporation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2012

Royal jelly (RJ) is a widely used natural food. It is also a major source of nutrition for queen bees and plays a key role in their development. RJ is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. The regulation of gene expression in these two glands may influence the development of queen bees by affecting the content of RJ. This study investigated the epigenetic effects in these two glands in young adult worker bees treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and NBM-HD-1, a novel compound synthesized in this laboratory. Western blot analyses indicated that the levels of acetyl-histone 3 and p21 protein expression in MCF-7 cells increased markedly after treatment with NBM-HD-1. The data proved that NBM-HD-1 was a novel and potent HDACi. Furthermore, a method of affecting epigenetic regulation of the mrjp family gene in the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees was developed by feeding young adult worker bees HDACi. Epigenetic regulation produced several important biological effects. A marked change in the protein composition of the RJ secreted from these treated bees was found. Only the ratio of specific major royal jelly protein 3 (MRJP3) was significantly altered in the treated bees versus the untreated controls. Other MRJP family proteins did not change. This alteration in the ratio of royal jelly proteins resulted in a significant increase in the body size of queen bee larvae. The data seem to suggest that HDACis may play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young adult worker bees. They appear to change mrjp3 gene expression and alter the ratio of MRJP3 protein in RJ. This study presents the first evidence that HDACis are capable of regulating the ratio of MRJP3 proteins in RJ, which has the potential to change the body size of queen bees during their development.

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