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Liu H.-M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jiang R.-H.,CAS Institute of Botany | Guo J.,Harbin Normal University | Hovenkamp P.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center Section | And 5 more authors.
Taxon | Year: 2013

We inferred the classification of the Paleotropical climbing fern genus Arthropteris and its close relative Psammio-sorus, a monotypic genus endemic to Madagascar. The classification of these ferns has until now been poorly understood. To address this, we sampled more than half of the species diversity covering the whole range of the genus including the outlying occurrence at the Juan Fernández Islands. To reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, we obtained DNA sequences from up to six plastid genome regions, including coding and non-coding regions, for these two genera and representatives of all families of the eupolypod I clade, with an emphasis on the Tectariaceae. These data were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. We also obtained divergence time estimates. Three questions were addressed. (1) We established that Arthropteris and Psammiosorus form a well-supported clade representing a separate taxon based on their morphological distinctiveness, phylogenetic relationships, and separation since the Eocene from other accepted families of eupolypod ferns. (2) Psammiosorus was found to be nested within Arthropteris. (3) Our analyses supported recognition of a previously doubted species endemic to the karst regions of southern China and northern Vietnam. As a consequence of our results, we describe the new family Arthropteridaceae and introduce the new combination Arthropteris paucivenia for the Madagascan endemic previously treated under Psammiosorus.

A new species of the genus Dugesia from the Amatola Mountains in the Eastern Province of South Africa is described, including a karyological account and notes on its life cycle and reproductive modes. The new species differs from its congeners in a unique combination of morphological characters of the copulatory apparatus, in particular the central course of the ejaculatory duct with its terminal opening at the tip of the penis papilla, the elongated seminal vesicle, the asymmetrical openings of the oviducts into the bursal canal, and the openings of vasa deferentia at about halfway along the seminal vesicle. In addition, an overview is provided of all freshwater triclads reported from the African continent including karyological information and notes on reproductive modes. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

van der Burgt X.M.,Herbarium | Mackinder B.A.,Herbarium | Wieringa J.J.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center Section | Wieringa J.J.,Wageningen University | de la Estrella M.,University of Montreal
Kew Bulletin | Year: 2015

The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt & Estrella; G. quinquejugum Burgt; G. scutatum Wieringa & Estrella and G. sulfureum Burgt. Five species in the complex were already recognised as accepted: G. brachystegioides (Harms) J. Léonard; G. klainei (Pierre ex Pellegr.) J. Léonard; G. newberyi Burgt; G. ngouniense (Pellegr.) J. Léonard and G. ogoouense (Pellegr.) J. Léonard. All 14 species are medium-sized or large trees of evergreen rain forest on well-drained or periodically inundated soil, at 0 – 900 m altitude. Each of the 14 species is distributed in one or more of the following Central African countries: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), Angola (Cabinda) and Congo (Kinshasa). Included are a key, a table comparing the main morphological characters, illustrations drawn to the same scale and distribution maps of all species. The conservation status of all species is assessed according to IUCN categories and criteria: G. maximum is classified as Critically Endangered, G. ebo and G. newberyi as Endangered, G. breteleri, G. klainei, G. minkebense, G. ngouniense and G. scutatum as Vulnerable, and the remaining six species as Least Concern. © 2015, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

van Valkenburg J.L.C.H.,National Reference Center | Duistermaat H.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center Section | Boer E.,National Reference Center | Boer E.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center Section
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2013

For several years work has been ongoing to compile information to facilitate the identification of non-native plants that (potentially) pose a threat to the biodiversity of the ecozone comprising Northern Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and North-Western France. Such identification information may also be used for species that are regulated by other countries and are likely to be present as contaminants in commercial exports originating from the Netherlands. This information system comprises a set of interactive image-driven identification keys for invasive plants at various growth stages for use in a range of different situations: seed contaminants in bird feed, weeds in bonsai plants, seedling identification, identification keys of invasive terrestrial plants and invasive aquatic plants. The advantage of image-driven identification keys using a multiple entry system lies in limiting misunderstandings in terminology and failure in identification, in the absence of certain characters, as is sometimes the case in dichotomous keys. The interactive keys are linked to the species information in the Q-bank database, including datasheets, worldwide distribution maps, specimen level information, barcodes of selected species, etc. This information is now available at http://www.q-bank.eu/Plants/. © 2013 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2013 OEPP/EPPO.

Van Velzen R.,Wageningen University | Van Velzen R.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center Section | Wahlert G.A.,University of Utah | Sosef M.S.M.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Systematic Botany | Year: 2015

Rinorea is a pantropical genus of shrubs and small trees within the family Violaceae. The genus is particularly diverse in Africa where species are ecologically important as they are often abundant or even dominant in particular forest types and act as larval host plants for highly specialized Cymothoe butterflies. Despite their importance, species identification of African Rinorea is difficult and a taxonomic revision is needed. Previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that neotropical taxa are sister to a palaeotropical clade, with multiple independent dispersals to Madagascar, but these were based on plastid data only. We therefore present an updated phylogeny of Rinorea with increased sampling of African taxa, using plastid as well as nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from nuclear DNA data were generally congruent with those based on evidence from plastid haplotypes from earlier studies. Our increased taxonomic sampling also revealed previously undiscovered African Rinorea clades, some of which warrant further taxonomic study. Ancestral state reconstructions refute previous hypotheses about the evolution of morphological characters traditionally used for Rinorea infrageneric classification. In addition, some widespread species may comprise species complexes. It is clear that African Rinorea require comprehensive taxonomic revision; our contribution to understanding Rinorea infrageneric relationships will facilitate this task. © 2015 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

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