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Araiza M.,National University of Costa Rica | Carrillo L.,Conservation Breeding Specialist Group Mexico | List R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gonzalez C.A.L.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | And 7 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2012

Given the conflict with human interests that in many cases results in the extirpation of large carnivores, acceptance of their reintroduction is a considerable challenge. By the 1980s Mexican wolves (Canis lupus) were extinct in the wild. In 1998 a population was reintroduced in the Blue Range Mountains of New Mexico (U.S.A.). Efforts to reintroduce the species in Mexico have been ongoing since the late 1980s. Four teams working independently identified 6 areas in northern Mexico in the historic range of Mexican wolves, where reintroductions could potentially be successful. Each team used different methods and criteria to identify the areas, which makes it difficult to prioritize among these areas. Therefore, members of the different teams worked together to devise criteria for use in identifying priority areas. They identified areas with high, intermediate, and low potential levels of conflict between wolves and humans. Areas with low potential conflict had larger buffers (i.e., distance from human settlement to areas suitable for wolves) around human settlements than high- and intermediate-conflict areas and thus were thought most appropriate for the first reintroduction. High-conflict areas contained habitat associated with wolf presence, but were closer to human activity. The first reintroduction of Mexican wolves to Mexico occurred in October 2011 in one of the identified low-conflict areas. The identification of suitable areas for reintroduction represents a crucial step in the process toward the restoration of large carnivores. Choice of the first reintroduction area can determine whether the reintroduction is successful or fails. A failure may preclude future reintroduction efforts in a region or country. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

Hulva P.,Charles University | Fornuskova A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Fornuskova A.,Masaryk University | Chudarkova A.,Charles University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Here, we present a study of the Pipistrellus pipistrellus species complex, a highly diversified bat group with a radiation centre in the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. The study sample comprised 583 animals from 118 localities representatively covering the bats' range in the western Palearctic. We used fast-evolving markers (the mitochondrial D-loop sequence and 11 nuclear microsatellites) to describe the phylogeography, demography and population structure of this model taxon and address details of its diversification. The overall pattern within this group includes a mosaic of phylogenetically basal, often morphologically distant, relatively small and mostly allopatric demes in the Mediterranean Basin, as well as two sympatric sibling species in the large continental part of the range. The southern populations exhibit constant size, whereas northern populations show a demographic trend of growth associated with range expansion during the Pleistocene climate oscillations. There is evidence of isolation by distance and female philopatry in P. pipistrellus sensu stricto. Although the northern populations are reproductively isolated, we detected introgression events among several Mediterranean lineages. This pattern implies incomplete establishment of reproductive isolating mechanisms in these populations as well as the existence of a past reinforcement stage in the continental siblings. The occurrence of reticulations in the radiation centre among morphologically and ecologically derived relict demes suggests that adaptive unequal gene exchange within hybridizing populations could play a role in speciation and adaptive radiation within this group. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Puechmaille S.J.,University College Dublin | Puechmaille S.J.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Allegrini B.,Naturalia France | Boston E.S.M.,University College Dublin | And 6 more authors.
Mammalian Biology | Year: 2012

In recent years, new cryptic mammalian species have been discovered in Europe, many of which belong to the order Chiroptera. Within this order, some species such as Myotis nattereri contain several cryptic lineages/species, especially in the Mediterranean region. Here we present genetic, phylogenetic and morphological analysis on the Myotis nattereri species complex, focusing on France which is thought to be a contact zone for the different lineages/species. We sequenced the full Cytochrome b gene from individuals from 23 localities and investigated diagnostic morphological characteristics. Our results reveal new phylogenetic relationships within the Myotis nattereri species complex and among closely related species. We discuss morphological characters which are synapomorphic to each lineage and can be used to differentiate them. Our results also demonstrate the presence of a new lineage within the Myotis nattereri species complex. This lineage, endemic to Corsica, possibly represents a new cryptic species for which we present preliminary ecological data. We further identify the presence of three lineages/species in France and detail their distribution with potential contact zones. © 2011 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.

Puechmaille S.J.,University College Dublin | Puechmaille S.J.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Puechmaille S.J.,University of Greifswald | Allegrini B.,Naturalia France | And 7 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

We used an integrative approach combining cranio-dental characters, mitochondrial and nuclear data and acoustic data to show the presence in the genus Miniopterus of a cryptic species from the Maghreb region. This species was previously recognised as Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl, 1817). Miniopterus maghrebensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from M. schreibersii sensu stricto on the basis of cranial characters and from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite evidence. Al-though slight external morphological and acoustic differences were noted between the two species, these criteria alone did not allow reliable species identification from live animals. Based on the specimens identified morphologically and/or ge-netically, the distribution range of M. maghrebensis sp. nov. extends from northern Morocco to south of the High Atlas Mountains and northern Tunisia. The new cryptic species is found in sympatry with M. schreibersii s.str. near coastal regions of North Africa. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

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