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Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Amarasingha R.P.R.K.,University of Peradeniya | Suriyagoda L.D.B.,University of Peradeniya | Suriyagoda L.D.B.,University of Western Australia | Marambe B.,University of Peradeniya | And 7 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

The APSIM-Oryza model has been used worldwide to evaluate the impact of diverse management practices on the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Despite its importance, the crop productivity (kgha-1) and water productivity (kgha-1mm-1) of rice under moisture-limited (i.e. rainfed or rainfed with supplementary alternate wetting-and-drying (AWD) irrigation) farmer-field conditions in tropical South-Asia has received little attention in modelling exercises. Benefits of aligning crop establishment with the onset of rainfall to reduce dependency on supplementary irrigation and improve crop and water productivities have not yet been quantified in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we parameterised and evaluated the APSIM-Oryza model for two widely grown Sri Lankan short- and medium-duration rice varieties. The model estimated the grain yield of rice under moisture-limited farmer-field conditions with a strong fit (n=24, R20.97, RMSE=484kgha-1), across cultivation year, season, time of establishment (i.e. with rainfall onset or date-specific planting), variety and/or water management practice (i.e. totally rainfed or rainfed with supplementary irrigation). A climatic analysis indicated that the farmers regularly establish rice crops 2-4 weeks after the rainfall onset. This is a consequence of the current practice of setting the date for crop establishment at pre-season cultivation meetings without a scientifically-validated rainfall forecast. The same analysis revealed that an early onset to the rainy season resulted in longer seasons with more rain than late onset. When the onset of rainfall is delayed, crop modelling scenarios using the validated APSIM model showed an increased dependence on supplementary irrigation for rice cultivation. Alternatively, in years when an early onset was observed, late planting in the season reduced the use of rain water by 95% while increasing the irrigation water requirement by 11% compared with planting at rainfall onset. Access to supplementary with AWD irrigation increased the stability of grain yield, and crop and water productivity, irrespective of the onset of rainfall or time of crop establishment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hettiarachchi N.D.G.,Natural Resources Management Center
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

This study emphasis the requirement of integrated approach for regulate the global temperature rises to protect the planet form climate changes and other system changes. It is clear that effect of global temperature increases, have already affected many physical and biological and human systems, This unbalances of global systems is more rapid after 1950' s increases of using environmental polluting energy sources with releasing the pollutants to global systems together with extra solar energy accumulation. How ever as a solution it is require to reduce pollutants and balance the energy level to optimum within the caring capacity. To protect the planet as a sustainable system with controlling temperature rises and other unbalances it is important to keep and protect the interrelationship of each and every system with protecting mechanisms. Therefore it is require integrated approach to establish protective mechanisms for each and every sectors of badly effecting with considering regional, national. international and global level. Source

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