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van Overbeek L.S.,Wageningen University | Saikkonen K.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Research on different endophyte taxa and the related scientific disciplines have largely developed separately, and comprehensive community-level studies on bacterial and fungal interactions and their importance are lacking. Here, we discuss the transmission modes of bacteria and fungi and the nature of their interactions in the endosphere at both the molecular and physiological level. Mixed-community biofilms in the endosphere may have a role in protecting endophytes against encountered stresses, such as from plant defense systems. However, transmission from static (in biofilms) to free-living (planktonic) forms may be crucial for the exploration of new habitable spaces in plants. Important features previously recognized as plant-microbe interactions or antagonism in endophyte genomes and metagenomes are proposed to have essential roles in the modulation of endophyte communities. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Paletto A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Hamunen K.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | De Meo I.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

In participatory forest planning, relevant stakeholders are included in the decision-making process. Stakeholder analysis is a crucial step in the participatory process in order to involve all groups of interests, increasing the legitimacy and transparency of the process. On the other hand, to gather an active stakeholder group that can communicate effectively, the number of key stakeholders should be restricted. This study aims to devise a nonsubjective method to identify and classify stakeholders in three categories (key, primary, and secondary stakeholders), taking into account the relationships among them (social network analysis). Stakeholders are classified according to the regular equivalence and betweenness centrality. The stakeholders' classification system is tested in two forest landscape management plans in Italy. Results show that the method is able to balance stakeholders' contributions and can be used to enhance the democratization of the decision-making process when power is unevenly distributed among the stakeholders. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Forest nurseries use different greenhouse light sources including new light technologies to produce conifer seedlings without knowing their real impact on subsequent field performance. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether different growth light spectra during pre-cultivation of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings under controlled conditions affect growth and morphology of seedlings, and whether the possible differences between the treatments will be maintained after outplanting to a field site. The seedlings were pre-cultivated for 5.5–6.5 weeks in a darkened greenhouse under four light spectra consisting of different proportions of blue (B, 400–500 nm), red (R, 600–700 nm), and far-red (FR, 700–800 nm), with high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) serving as controls. The light treatments (250 µmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetically active radiation) were provided using light-emitting diodes, and the treatments included the following: (1) 25 % B + 70 % R + 5 % FR; (2) 25 % B + 75 % R; (3) 55 % B + 45 % R; and (4) HPS: 6 % B + 44 % green (500–600 nm) + 41 % R + 9 % FR (control). Growth and morphology were studied at the time of transplanting in spring, and again, at the time of outplanting the seedlings in the field site in autumn. Growth, survival and phenology of the seedlings were followed in the field for 1 year. Growth and morphology of the seedlings were modified by the different growth light spectra during pre-cultivation, but by the time of outplanting, these differences between the treatments had disappeared. In conclusion: Growth and morphology of seedlings can be modified by adjusting the spectral composition of growth light during pre-cultivation, but the modifications may not be long-lasting. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Artell J.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Huhtala A.,VATT Institute for Economic Research
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2016

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) seeks to achieve good ecological status of surface waters across the European Union by 2027. The WFD guidelines explicitly recognize the economics of water management by providing exceptions to water areas with disproportionately high restoration costs. This calls indirectly for estimations of benefits lost due to non-attainment. We employ a hedonic property pricing approach on waterfront recreational properties to estimate the welfare impacts of attaining the good ecological status described by the WFD. The empirical challenge is that the quality measure proposed by the WFD specifically denotes ecological quality, whereas economically measurable water quality values are heavily dependent on recreation impacts. Intuitively, the choice of water quality measure should have an effect on estimating the value of water quality. Our data provide a unique chance to compare three alternative indicators of water quality: (1) a usability-based index, (2) subjectively reported measure and (3) the ecological status determined by the WFD. We find that an improvement in water quality is associated with a statistically significant, non-linear change in recreational property values. We show how the ecological status compares with the other two indicators, and discuss the justifiability of using revealed preference methods when the valued good is defined purely on the basis of ecological criteria. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Ruggiero S.,University of Jyvaskyla | Varho V.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke | Rikkonen P.,Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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