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Viitala E.-J.,Natural Resources Institute Finland
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

A common perception in forest and natural resource economics is that the celebrated 'Faustmann formula' was discovered in 1849 and that the 'Faustmann rule' or Faustmann-Pressler solution to the optimal forest rotation age was derived from it a decade later by Max Robert Pressler. This paper shows that the modern perspective to the valuation of forests was presented in German territorial states much earlier than has previously been thought. In 1805 a competent forest mathematician Johann Hossfeld showed explicitly how forest value can be derived under both intermittent and sustained yield management, thus discovering the Faustmann formula. The study also shows that the close intellectual and professional connections among the first German 'forest economists' seem to have played a key role in the diffusion of modern forest economic principles from Hossfeld and his contemporaries to Faustmann and Pressler, and perhaps even more generally to modern capital theory. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Jalkanen R.,Natural Resources Institute Finland
Forests | Year: 2016

Needle pathogens of larch (Larix spp.) in the Nordic countries are under-studied. Their incidence in Finland tends to be low and local, and this may be a function of enemy release, since species of larch were introduced to the region. Here, the ecology and incidence of larch needle pathogens and the abiotic factors that also affect larch in northern Finland are reviewed. Field observations and related laboratory analyses during the past 35 years have mainly been obtained near the Kivalo Research Area within the Arctic Circle, Finnish Lapland. The relatively recent introduction of Hypodermella laricis is a primary focus. This pathogen is not only new to Nordic countries, but can cause severe outbreaks, defoliation and crown-thinning in the canopies of all ages of most planted larch species worldwide. Symptoms of H. laricis clearly differ from those of Mycosphaerella laricina; the latter has affected Larix sibirica at high latitudes for decades. The effects of Meria laricis, Lophodermium laricinum, various rust fungi, and wind and frost are also discussed. © 2016 by the authors. Source

Jylha P.,Natural Resources Institute Finland | Bergstrom D.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

Marginal lands could be utilized for increasing energy biomass production independent of industrial roundwood procurement. Dedicated energy biomass production systems on such sites would be based on low stand establishment cost, clear-cutting at an early stage, and coppice regeneration. Harvesters designed for the processing of industrial roundwood are inefficient or too costly to use in small-diameter and dense stands, while insufficient cutting capacity and uneven space distribution of trees limit the use of modified agricultural harvesters developed for short-rotation woody-crop plantations (e.g. willow). We constructed time consumption models for clear-cutting and forwarding of whole trees from un-thinned, small-diameter stands. The data originated from naturally afforested downy birch-dominated stands located in a cutaway peat production area in northern Finland. Stand age varied from 14 to 29 years and stand density was 5150-160,250 trees per hectare. In clear-cutting, a medium-sized forest harvester equipped with an accumulating felling head fitted with a circular saw disc was used, and subsequent forwarding was done using a modified medium-sized forwarder. Cutting productivity was 3-11oven-dry tons (ODt) per effective hour (E0-h), and was highly dependent on stand characteristics (e.g. mean whole-tree volume). At a distance of 300 m, for example, the productivity of forwarding in the time study plots was 6.7-10.4 ODt E0-h-1. Our study indicates that energy biomass can be harvested from young downy birch thickets efficiently by clear-cutting with appropriate machinery. © 2016. Source

The effect of wood ash (0, 6, 12, and 24 t ha-1) on the nutrient concentrations and biomass production in willows (Salix viminalis and S. x dasyclados) and birches (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) on two cutaway peats was studied in greenhouse conditions. In addition to ash, all treatments included fertilisation with nitrogen (150 kg N ha-1). The largest amount of wood ash increased the pH from 4.0 to 7.3 for Aitoneva peat and from 5.0 to 7.5 for Piipsanneva peat. Increasing the amount of ash also significantly increased extractable phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in peat – even the smallest dose increased concentrations manifold compared to unfertilised peats. The growth of the studied species was affected by both peat type and fertilisation treatment. Unfertilised willows and willows fertilised with nitrogen died in Aitoneva peat and grew poorly in Piipsanneva peat. Biomass production of birches in unfertilised peat was low. Nitrogen fertilisation without ash did not increase growth. The best growth was recorded with the lowest dose of ash (6 t ha-1). Ash fertilisation significantly increased the foliar concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in all species studied and decreased those of calcium and magnesium. The study indicated that the original peat characteristics affect growth of seedlings even when the sites are fertilised. Wood ash proved to be a suitable fertiliser in afforestation of cutaway peatlands. © 2016, Lietuvos Misku Institutas. All rights reserved. Source

Salmi P.,Natural Resources Institute Finland
Sociologia Ruralis | Year: 2015

In many European areas, recent transitions in rural development can be described as a shift from an emphasis on food production to a diversity of new forms of natural resource utilisation. This shift towards post-productivism is characteristic to many coastal areas, where commercial fisheries try to adapt their strategies with other activities, interests and ideologies, such as the protection of biodiversity, leisure use and tourism. This article analyses opportunities and governance arrangements that support commercial fishers' adaptation within a post-productivist setting, focusing on the Archipelago Sea region in southwest Finland. Relying on interview, survey and documentary material, the case-study recognises new forms of multifunctional activities that enhance the viability and resilience of coastal communities and also deliver benefits to the environmental and leisure sectors. © 2015 European Society for Rural Sociology. Source

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