News Article | November 29, 2016
The organizers of International LiDAR Mapping Forum (ILMF), the world’s leading technical conference and expo covering the newest airborne, terrestrial and underwater LiDAR as well as emerging remote-sensing and data collection tools and technologies, announced the 2017 conference program and presenters today. “The 2017 conference is a must-attend for professionals involved in the collection, processing and visualization of remotely-sensed LiDAR data,” said Lisa Murray, Event Director. “ILMF will provide the latest technical information, including a deep dive into next-generation LiDAR technologies Geiger-Mode LiDAR (GML) and Single-Photon LiDAR (SPL), technologies that are sparking much excitement and debate within the mapping community.” The 17th annual edition of ILMF will take place February 13-15, 2017 in Denver, Colorado. The main conference program begins with two sessions on GML and SPL. Geiger-Mode LiDAR and Single-Photon LiDAR: What’s the Difference & Why Does it Matter? and Reporting Out: GML/SPL Applied to Large-Scale Projects, including lessons learned from the nation’s first statewide program to leverage Geiger-mode technology (North Carolina), will provide answers to the many questions geospatial professionals have about these new technologies. Sensor characteristics, data density, accuracy and stability of point clouds and filtering techniques will all be addressed. Presenters in the sessions include representatives from USGS, University of Houston, North Carolina Emergency Management, ESP Associates, USDA NRCS National Geospatial Center of Excellence as well as a panel discussion with key manufacturers. Other sessions include: •Point Clouds: From Processing & Feature Extraction to Analysis & Management •Updates from the USGS •Topo-Bathy/Shoreline Mapping •Forestry •Multi-Sensor & Data Fusion •New Technologies •UAVs & LiDAR •Bathymetry LiDAR & Topobathy •Coastal Monitoring •New Developments in Mobile Mapping •Landslide Detection & Mapping •Analyzing LiDAR Information for Decision-Making The applications for LiDAR and its companion technologies include asset management, civil infrastructure, forestry, land and natural resource management, urban modeling, coastal zone mapping, and emergency services and disaster response. More than 50 aerial mapping experts will be speaking including professionals from research organizations, government agencies, private enterprise, as well as leading academics. The 2017 presenter list can be viewed here. The full conference program can be viewed here. In addition to the main program, “Product Previews” will provide brief updates on vendors’ newest products and latest advances. Keynotes will be announced at a later date. The exhibit floor will have more than 60 leading technology, software and service providers from around the world. Exhibitors include airborne, terrestrial and bathymetric LiDAR, complementary solutions providers, sensor manufacturers, service providers, data processing, GIS, UAV/UAS suppliers and more. The current exhibitor list can be viewed here. For the third consecutive year, the exhibit floor will have a UAV/UAS pavilion to arm delegates with insight into the growing UAV/UAS market and the opportunities this presents for aerial LiDAR professionals. Early-bird registration is available now. Interested parties are encouraged to register before the early-bird deadline to save $175. Registration is available online here. LiDAR, which stands for Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote sensing technology that measures ranges (variable distances) to the Earth by using light in the form of a pulsed laser. These light pulses—combined with other data recorded by the airborne, terrestrial, or underwater system— generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics. LiDAR principally consists of a laser, a scanner, and a GPS receiver. Airplanes, helicopters and UAVs are often used to acquire LIDAR data. Topographic and bathymetric are two types of LiDAR. Topographic LiDAR often uses a near-infrared laser to map the land. Water-penetrating green light is used in Bathymetric LiDAR to measure seafloor and riverbed elevations. International LiDAR Mapping Forum (ILMF) is a technical conference & exhibition focused on airborne, terrestrial and underwater LiDAR as well as emerging remote-sensing and data collection tools and technology used for applications including Asset Management; Civil Infrastructure; Coastal Zone Mapping; Emergency Services & Disaster Response; Land and Natural Resource Management; and Urban Modeling. The 2017 edition of the annual event will be held February 13-15, 2017 at the Hyatt Regency Denver at Colorado Convention Center. For more information, visit http://www.lidarmap.org. ILMF is part of a network of events and media for the global geospatial market organized by Diversified Communications that includes Commercial UAV Expo Americas, Commercial UAV Expo Europe, Commercial UAV News, SPAR3D Expo & Conference and SPAR3D.com.
News Article | November 9, 2015
Gone are the days when children followed their fathers to work in the woods. These informal apprenticeships are a thing of the past because of today's safety considerations. So the Pennsylvania Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) Implementation Committee decided if they can't bring youth to the forest, they would bring the forest to youth. "What are the risks to the supply chain, to our economy, to forests in general, if we don't secure a future generation to care for our forests and to harvest them responsibly?" said Kathy Abusow, SFI Inc. President and CEO. "The Pennsylvania Committee members are thought leaders when it comes to youth training." For the second year in a row, students in the Natural Resource Management Career and Technical Program at Central Mountain High School in Mill Hall received the SFI Professional Timber Harvester Training credential. The training is provided through a partnership with the Pennsylvania SFI Implementation Committee that allows students in the program to complete it as part of their regular curriculum at no additional cost to them or the school. "We hope that through this partnership more students will become interested in a career in the forest sector. By graduating with this training credential, these students come out ahead of the game as they enter the workforce. They already have the training that employers are looking for," said Chuck Coup, the SFI Implementation Committee's Program Manager. The training is the same that loggers in Pennsylvania are required to complete to maintain their status as harvesting professionals recognized by SFI. The training program emphasizes safety, environmental conservation and professionalism. Students are taught requirements for timber harvesting safety, and methods of protecting the environment during timber harvesting operations, including best management practices for protecting water resources. The Pennsylvania Committee has a history of expertise in logger training. More than 7,000 individuals have participated in the Pennsylvania SFI Professional Timber Harvester Training Program. About 700 participants maintain their current training status each year, and some loggers have completed more than 100 hours of training. The benefits of the training program were further recognized and bolstered when the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry adopted a policy in 2007 that requires SFI-trained loggers to lead all commercial timber harvesting activities on Pennsylvania's 2.2 million acres (890,308 hectares) of state forestland. And most recently, the SFI Committee convinced state lawmakers to unanimously designate June 5 officially as Pennsylvania Sustainable Forestry Initiative Day. Both the House and Senate Resolutions specifically cite SFI logger training as a major reason for declaring SFI Day. "This strong recognition from the state government is a fitting tribute to the 20-year history of progress and leadership on sustainability from the Pennsylvania SFI Implementation Committee. It also reminds us all of the critical role loggers play on the front lines when it comes to the stainability of habitats and ensuring critical steps are taken to protect things like water quality," Abusow said. The Pennsylvania Committee was presented with the 17th annual SFI Implementation Committee Achievement Award at the SFI 2015 Annual Conference.
News Article | December 23, 2015
In 1994, the Service designated the arroyo toad as an endangered species under the ESA due to a combination of man-made and natural threats to the species' survival. While ongoing conservation efforts by state and federal stakeholders have reduced some of the threats to the arroyo toad, the species' overall population has not yet responded enough to prevent the possibility of extinction. "This announcement underscores that the Service is committed to using the best available scientific information to inform our decisions," said Steve Henry, field supervisor of the Service's Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office. "We look forward to continuing to work closely with our federal, state and local partners to fully recover the arroyo toad." Factors contributing to the toad's decline include urban development, agricultural conversion, mining and prospecting activities, operation of dams and changes in water flow, alteration of the natural fire regime, and road development and maintenance. Additionally, the introduction of non-native predator species, like the bullfrog, and limited water resources due to drought, led the species to be at risk of extinction. While some of these threats have been alleviated, recent data suggest arroyo toad populations have not stabilized and are declining in both the southern and northern portions of the species' current range. These declines are apparent in the following basins of the species' current known southern range: the Lower Santa Margarita River Basin, Upper San Luis Rey River Basin, Upper and Lower Santa Ysabel Creek Basins, Upper San Diego River Basin, Upper Sweetwater River Basin, and Upper and Lower Cottonwood Creek Basins. In the northern portions of the species' range, including the Salinas River Basin, Santa Ynez River Basin and Santa Clara River Basin, recent data suggest similar population declines. No long-term data are available pointing to population increases at other locations where the arroyo toad is known to exist. Through Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act, the Service works with federal agencies to decrease or mitigate impacts of urban development and road construction in arroyo toad habitat. Water releases from some dams have also been altered to more closely mimic the natural flows that support arroyo toads. Management actions taken by the U.S. Forest Service include cattle exclusions, road crossing improvements and monitoring, and changes to projects to avoid impacting important arroyo toad breeding habitat. Similarly, the Department of Defense has conserved arroyo toad populations on military lands through its Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans. Additionally, the implementation of Habitat Conservation Plans in southern California have placed portions of three additional river basins that support arroyo toads in reserves providing permanent protection for the species from development in those areas. The service will continue to work alongside federal, state, local and non-profit partners to support monitoring and surveying work for the arroyo toad and conservation and management efforts for the species. Explore further: Call put out to eradicate invasive toad from Madagascar before it wreaks environmental damage
News Article | November 8, 2016
Examining how land-use changes may affect water quality and fisheries resources in lakes and rivers will help natural resource agencies manage wildlife populations, according to Steven Chipps, leader of the U.S. Geological Survey, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit at South Dakota State University. The fisheries biologist and Muthiah Muruganandam, a Fulbright scholar from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, will use existing data to track changes in the characteristics and water quality of surface waters in northeastern South Dakota. As a senior scientist at the Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Muruganandam has been doing research on natural resource management and fisheries and aquatic system management, in particular, for more than 20 years. The 18-month research project is supported by the Fulbright Scholar program. Recent changes in land use have been well documented in South Dakota, according to Chipps, an adjunct faculty member in South Dakota State University's Department of Natural Resource Management. Between 2006 and 2012, more than 1.4 million acres of grasslands were converted to cropland, with the largest change occurring in east central and northeastern South Dakota. Nested within this landscape are surface waters that include lakes and rivers, Chipps pointed out. "We don't know how changes in land use may affect surface water quality or to what extent lakes and streams in eastern South Dakota have been impacted." The researchers will access more than 20 years of data from federal and state agencies including the Department of Natural Resources, the East Dakota Water Management District, U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department. "We're doing a lot of data mining," Muruganandam said. They hope to use long-term data from water quality assessments to evaluate relationships between beneficial water uses and land use patterns. Those beneficial water uses include fish and wildlife propagation, recreation and stock watering sources, in addition to more specific uses such as domestic water supply. Accumulation of sediment and nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, adversely impacts water quality, according to Muruganandam. Increased vegetation, lower oxygen levels and decreased water clarity can adversely impact recreational fish, such as yellow perch, bass and crappies. However, Chipps explained, "A lot of things come into play, not just land use." Northeastern South Dakota typically goes through cycles of drought and flooding that affect water availability and aquatic production. "That dynamic has gone on for eons," he said. In terms of fish populations, Chipps noted, "A newly flooded lake is very productive. When the water level decreases or stays static, fish production declines over time. We end up with a stagnant system." The researchers hypothesize that current approaches for dealing with excess water, such as wetland draining and tiling, could stabilize water levels in small lakes and impoundments. This then interrupts the normal ebb and flow that is advantageous to fish populations. "If the data show that lake water levels are becoming more stable, this will change how we look at managing fish," Chipps noted. Environmental impacts on water resources can put pressure on aquatic ecosystems that, in the short term, can have a more dramatic effect than climate change.
News Article | October 30, 2016
World Patent Marketing, a vertically integrated manufacturer and engineer of patented products, introduces The Dual-Temp Sipper, a beverage container invention that has two individual compartments. “The beverage container industry is worth $29 billion,” says Scott Cooper, CEO and Creative Director of World Patent Marketing. "Greater disposable income will bolster demand for certain types of beverages, such as wine, that do not already come with a portable container." “Today’s busy lifestyles have led to people being forced to carry many things at once,” says Jerry Shapiro, Director of Manufacturing and World Patent Marketing Inventions. “This beverage container invention attempts to solve this problem by giving people a convenient way to hold their drinks.” The Dual Temp-Sipper is a beverage container invention that will make everyday life more convenient for people. Many people face the problem of having to carry multiple containers for their food or drink, which can be both cumbersome and wasteful. This invention creates a container with two separate, insulated compartments. Each one maintains its own temperature and can be used to carry either food or drink. This one easily portable container is much easier to carry than the two or more that would be necessary to keep these meals separate. The Dual-Temp Sipper is also reusable and very durable so there is no waste. It can be used over and over again, whenever a portable meal container is necessary. "Like many active individuals, I was constantly fumbling with several beverage containers throughout my busy days,” says inventor Jaclyn A. “Between work, school, exercise and other activities, I realized I carried so many different types of beverages at different temperatures and it was driving me crazy. There was an obvious need to consolidate, so I created the Dual-Temp Sipper to alleviate the need for one person to carry multiple beverage containers, regardless of the type or temperature of their beverages. As a student of Natural Resource Management, the environmental benefits were another motivating factor in developing this product, as it will help to reduce the amount of disposable and reusable containers people purchase and discard regularly. By having two separate, insulated compartments within a single durable container, people will be able to more easily carry their favorite hot or cold, food or beverage with them no matter what activities may lie ahead.” Dual-Temp Sipper is a beverage container invention that has two separate insulated compartments to carry multiple kinds of food or drink on the go. ABOUT WORLD PATENT MARKETING World Patent Marketing is always looking for new invention ideas. The company provides invention services and is one of the only patent companies that engineers and manufactures its own products. The company is broken into six operating divisions: Patent Assistance and Research * Prototypes and Manufacturing * Distribution and Retail * Digital Marketing and Social Media * Direct Response TV and Internet Video Production * Patent Licensing & Investments As a global leader in the patent invention services industry, World Patent Marketing is by your side every step of the way, utilizing its capital and experience to guide the invention process towards a successful product launch so you can be one of the next World Patent Marketing Success Stories. World Patent Marketing Reviews enjoy an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau (World Patent Marketing BBB) and has earned five-star ratings from Google and consumer review sites such as Consumer Affairs, Trustpilot, Shopper Approved, Customer Lobby, ResellerRatings, My3Cents and World Patent Marketing Glassdoor. The CEO of World Patent Marketing, Scott Cooper, is also a Director of The Cooper Idea Foundation is the founder of the New York Inventors Exchange and has also been a proud member of the National Association of Manufacturers, Duns and Bradstreet, the US Chamber of Commerce, the South Florida Chamber of Commerce, the Miami Beach Chamber of Commerce, the Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, the Association for Manufacturing Excellence and the Society of Plastics Engineers. Those who are wondering how hard is it to get a patent or how much does it cost to patent an idea, should contact the invention marketing experts. World Patent Marketing credits its invention success to it's powerful and influential advisory board and its controversial “shock content” approach to invention marketing. According to Scott J. Cooper, the CEO and Creative Director of World Patent Marketing, “complaints from competitors are just part of the World Patent Marketing cost of doing business.” To submit invention ideas, contact World Patent Marketing at (888) 926-8174. Corporate headquarters located at 1680 Meridian Avenue, Miami Beach, Florida 33139.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Diversified Communications, organizer of International LiDAR Mapping Forum (ILMF) and the American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing (ASPRS) announced that their annual geospatial events will take place together in Denver in 2018. Lisa Murray, Director of ILMF, made the announcement with ASPRS President Charles Toth during her opening remarks at the 2017 International LiDAR Mapping Forum on Monday at the Hyatt Regency in Denver. The combined event will feature a single exhibit hall and inclusive social activities, giving attendees access to more geospatial solutions and networking than would have been possible had the events continued separately. The events will maintain parallel technical programs, including ILMF product reviews and ASPRS workshops, awards, and committee meetings. Attendees will be able to purchase a conference pass that allows entry to programs of their choice, or they may choose a universal pass that allows entry to all programs. Lisa Murray with ILMF expressed her excitement about the opportunity. “The geospatial community has long been asking event partners to work together. This is a giant step toward a shared vision of bringing industry members together with government and academia for a powerful combination of education, technology innovation and commercial exchange. Diversified Communications and ASPRS share the goal of creating more value for members, attendees and exhibitors by offering multiple learning tracks and a vibrant exhibit floor that pairs the latest technology with hands-on workshops and in-market solutions.” Charles Toth, President of ASPRS, shared his thoughts: “For years, geospatial community members have asked if ILMF and ASPRS could come together. We are happy that the time has finally come to make that a reality. The current leadership of both organizations views colocation as a great benefit to the loyal attendees of both events. We envision the 2018 ILMF/ASPRS Annual Meeting as an opportunity for both organizations to focus on their core strengths to create an outstanding conference experience. A single exhibit hall will maximize exposure to vendors’ new products and services. Combined social activities will support the personal interactions and networking opportunities the community enjoys. ASPRS will bring pre-conference educational workshops and open committee meetings to encourage broader participation in the many important standards, certification, and outreach activities that are a hallmark of ASPRS. Parallel technical programs will create an opportunity for attendees to experience the content traditionally unique to each meeting. ASPRS features peer-reviewed presentations from academia, government, and the private sector across the spectrum of photogrammetry and remote sensing research and applications. Attendees at ILMF/ASPRS 2018 can look forward to a rich, exciting, and informative conference experience.” Stakeholders in the geospatial community expressed their enthusiasm for the co-location. •“I think it’s a wonderful idea. I’ve been an advocate of it for many years. There’s a lot of technology overlap between the two groups and I think we’ll get everyone in the world there!” – Mike Kitaif, Software Development Manager, Cardinal Systems •“I think it’s a great idea. It brings the academic environment and the commercial environment together. It’s going to be a terrific show next year.” – Ron Roth, Product Manager, Geospatial Solutions Division, Leica Geosystems •“Because of the similarities of the technology, clientele and similarities of ideas in the presentations, the folks on both sides will benefit. It’s a win-win.” – Bobby Tuck, President, Tuck Mapping Solutions •“I’m very happy to hear that ASPRS and ILMF are going to come together in a single event. This is something I was asking for several years ago. It makes a lot of sense for attendees and exhibitors who will now have more of a reason to attend a single event in the future.” – David Snyder, Solutions Specialist, Trimble •“I think joining the two conferences would make it much easier to stay current on the sciences and to pick up as much knowledge as possible.” – David Nale, President & CEO, eMap International ILMF and ASPRS will take place together at the Hyatt Regency Denver in Denver Colorado February 5-7, 2018. The 2017 ILMF will conclude in Denver this Wednesday, February 15. The 2017 ASPRS Annual Conference is taking place in Baltimore on March 12-16, 2017. International LiDAR Mapping Forum (ILMF) is a technical conference & exhibition focused on airborne, terrestrial and underwater LiDAR as well as emerging remote-sensing and data collection tools and technology used for applications including Asset Management; Civil Infrastructure; Coastal Zone Mapping; Emergency Services & Disaster Response; Land and Natural Resource Management; and Urban Modeling. The 2018 edition of the event, taking place with ASPRS, will be held February 5-7, 2018 at the Hyatt Regency Denver at Colorado Convention Center in Denver, Colorado. It will take place with the Annual Conference of the American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing (ASPRS. For more information, visit http://www.lidarmap.org. ILMF is part of a network of events and media for the global geospatial market organized by Diversified Communications that includes Commercial UAV Expo Americas, Commercial UAV Expo Europe, Commercial UAV News, SPAR3D Expo & Conference and SPAR3D.com. Founded in 1934, the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) is a scientific association serving professional members around the world. Our mission is to advance knowledge and improve understanding of mapping sciences to promote the responsible applications of photogrammetry, remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and supporting technologies.
News Article | January 13, 2016
The research identified genetic markers to predict whether specific trees in populations of ash will succumb to the disease or are able to tolerate and survive a fungal pathogen that is causing ash dieback. The technology could help to maintain the ash tree as part of the UK landscape through pre-screening of individual tree seedlings to identify non disease-susceptible individuals before they are planted out. The research was led by the Centre for Novel Agricultural Products (CNAP) in the Department of Biology at York and involved the Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, the University of Copenhagen; the School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London and the John Innes Centre. It is published in Scientific Reports. Across Europe, the European ash Fraxinus excelsior is being seriously affected by ash dieback with only around two per cent of trees surviving in areas where the disease is well established. The disease was first discovered in the UK in 2012 and is progressing much as expected. In addition to the 157,000 hectares of ash woodland in the UK, the 12 million ash trees outside those areas—in parklands, gardens, hedgerows and along roads for example—are also at risk. The research was jointly funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs as part of the Nornex consortium project to develop a long-term solution to the ash dieback threat. Using a population of selected trees with diverse susceptibility, the researchers sequenced their RNA to identify genes whose sequence and expression levels are correlated with disease symptoms. This allowed the scientists to identify gene markers that are correlated with low susceptibility to ash dieback disease. Using a second population of trees, they used these gene markers to successfully predict which of the trees were likely to have a low level of susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Professor Ian Bancroft, of CNAP, said: "Tree disease epidemics are a global problem, impacting food security, biodiversity and national economies. The approach we have used has never previously been used to screen for disease-resistant plants and in principle could be applied to identify disease tolerance in other species of trees that are currently being threatened by a range of tree pests and pathogens." Professor Allan Downie, from the John Innes Centre, said: "This is a wonderful example of British expertise in plant genomics and genetics rapidly and successfully being applied to minimise the impact of Ash Dieback. The technology developed offers a way around anticipated loss of more than 90 per cent of UK ash trees by identifying and selecting those ash seedlings most likely to survive the epidemic of ash dieback currently sweeping across the country." Professor Melanie Welham, BBSRC Executive Director, Science, said: "With BBSRC and Defra funding scientists have been able to rapidly collaborate and develop ways that should help mitigate the threat facing the UK's ash trees. This technique will help protect the UK's ash population and biodiversity, which are enjoyed by millions of people across the country." Universities and Science Minister Jo Johnson said: "This pioneering research puts Britain at the forefront of tackling ash dieback and other tree diseases that are threatening our environment and global food security. By protecting the science budget in real terms we can continue to invest in world-class science that delivers environmental benefits worldwide, while ensuring everyone can continue to enjoy Britain's woodlands." Lord Gardiner of Kimble, House of Lords Spokesman for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said: "We want to make sure the graceful ash tree continues to have a place in our natural environment which is why we've invested more than any other country in research on Ash Dieback. "The identification of genetic markers is a significant first step in developing trees with tolerance to the disease and testament to the innovation and dedication of our world leading scientists." Explore further: UK to ban ash tree imports to halt disease spread More information: 'Molecular markers for tolerance of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to dieback disease identified using Associative Transcriptomics' Scientific Reports, www.nature.com/articles/srep19335
News Article | December 14, 2015
We know that the world’s poor feel the effects of climate change most acutely, but it turns out there is an even more vulnerable subset to that population: women. "Women and men do not experience climate change in the same way," says Lorena Aguilar, senior advisor in the global gender office of IUCN, an international development NGO. Aguilar is one of a relatively small group of NGO leaders and diplomats that are advocating for greater inclusion of women at all levels of climate change work, and were pushing for gender equality and human rights mandates to be embedded in the final Paris agreement—ultimately to no avail. The UNFCCC designated December 8 as "gender day" at the conference, with a series of talks organized and reports released to help highlight work on the issue, but those involved in the negotiations say the final agreement fell well short of any meaningful commitment to address climate inequalities. "This agreement fundamentally does not address the needs of the most vulnerable countries, communities, and people of the world. It fails to address the structures of injustice and inequality which have caused the climate crisis," says Bridget Burns, co-coordinator of the UNFCCC Women and Gender Constituency, in a press release this weekend. Around the world, women’s issues and climate change intersect in a variety of ways. At the broadest level, the effects of climate change on women, particularly in the developing world, are compounded by their lack of equal rights or access to financial and educational resources. For example, women actually make up the majority of small farmers in the world, a trend that could grow as men increasingly migrate away from rural areas to find work. But they don’t have access to the same farming resources as men. The IUCN report estimates that if we could close the agricultural resource gap for women farmers, yields would increase enough to decrease world hunger by 12% to 17%. Land rights are another issue: only 28 of the world’s countries give men and women the same legal rights to land. "Climate change will increase the severity or incidence of natural disasters in many parts of the world, and women often lack the resources and documents," like titles, deeds and citizenship papers, "necessary to support their families after disasters," says Mayesha Alam, Associate Director of the Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security, and author of a recent report on women and climate change. As resources like water and firewood become more scarce, poor women and children will have to travel further and longer to meet the needs of their families, increasing the risk of sexual assault in some places. Already, says Alam, women collectively spend 140 million hours per day gathering water around the world—time that could be otherwise spent earning money or going to school. There are less obvious ways, too, that climate change affects already-vulnerable women. They are more likely to die in natural disasters: 70% of the fatalities of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami were women. Rising sea levels have already started to increase the salinity of drinking water in many places, which is especially dangerous to pregnant women. A 2011 study in Bangladesh found that an increase in hypertension among pregnant women was linked to sea level rise. But advocates are quick to point out that women are more than just victims of climate change. "What makes them vulnerable also makes them pivotal to climate change action. Women stand at the front lines in the battle against climate change: as providers of water, food, and energy or as leaders in businesses, communities and politics." said Sarah Marchildon, communications officer at the United Nations Climate Change secretariat. Alam points out that women take a different approach to the same problem: "Research and experience show that whereas men engaged in climate change adaptation and mitigation tend to favor technical solutions, women tend to be risk-aware and willing to change their habits" Women-focused work on climate change also has the potential to tick the box on other development goals, like improving the economic and educational lot of women around the world. (In development-speak, this is called "co-benefits" or "multiple benefits".) For example, cookstoves that run on solar power or biofuel reduce carbon emissions, as well as the amount of time women have to spend searching for fuel. But some advocates caution that in the world of high-level climate work—where the two major goals are climate change adaptation and mitigation—women are too often portrayed only as victims of climate change who must learn to adapt, rather than potential leaders and decision-makers. "’Adaptation’ is where everyone wants to put women," says Jeanette Gurung, Executive Director of Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (WOCAN). "At best women are associated with small-scale projects like solar lamps or cookstoves. Meanwhile the big boys get on with the ‘mitigation’ work and making money." Gurung says that female leaders should be more aggressive about pursuing large slices of the huge climate finance pie, rather than play it safe with small-scale projects. But she also highlighted the challenges women at all levels face—from farmers in the developing world to government ministers—in getting access to the financial and political resources they need to move the needle on climate change. "There’s an immense need for intermediaries between women farmers and these higher levels of sources of funding and decision making. That’s the level that no one wants to think about," she said. "If women are involved we are almost expected to be volunteers, rather than valuing our work." At the national and international governance levels, there is a striking gender gap. Women head just 12% of the nearly 900 environmental sector ministries in UN member countries, and on average only one-third of delegates to global negotiations like the Paris meeting are female. New financial vehicles, like the Green Climate Fund, could breathe new life into women-focused climate work. The GCF, established in 2010, currently holds some $10 billion in government and private donations, and is aiming to reach $100 billion. It’s the first climate fund to include a mandate for gender policies and requires that any organization that receives money for climate work get accredited for its policies and track record on gender equality. "This is game-changing," says Gurung. "Advocates no longer have to convince somebody to link gender and climate change. These are the big boys, and they got it." Gurung’s organization, WOCAN, is also working on tapping into climate investments to support gender equality in the same way carbon offset credits have funded big reforestation and renewable energy projects. They are rolling out W+, the world’s first "women’s empowerment standard" that measures things like time saved, income generated and educational training to help quantify the benefits to women from development projects and then market the "credits" for sale to government or private investors. The goal, says Gurung, is to help fill the financing gaps that exist for on-the-ground organizations and advocates doing women-focused climate work. WOCAN has already applied the W+ standard to two projects in Indonesia and Nepal and is working on setting a steady credit price. They are hoping to bundle the standard for sale with carbon offset projects and Gurung says she’s received a lot of interest so far from private companies doing sustainability work. "It was developed as a system to incentivize those projects that are already working on climate change to do good things for women, and make a profit in doing so," said Gurung. There are pockets of regional leadership on the issue, too, especially in areas where the impacts of climate change are already being felt. IUCN’s Aguilar, who is originally from Costa Rica, points to some Latin American countries like Guatemala, Costa Rica and Peru that have committed to gender-focused national climate change policies as reasons to be hopeful. "For us a matter of life and death. That’s why we fight for it," she said. "This is not something that we talk about, this is something that we live."
Navar J.,Natural Resource Management |
Lizarraga-Mendiola L.,Autonomous University of Hidalgo
Geofisica Internacional | Year: 2013
Global warming is likely modifying the hydrological cycle of forested watersheds. This report set as objectives to: a) assess the hydrological variables interception loss, I, potential and actual evapotranspiration, E, Et, runoff, Q, and soil moisture content, θ; b) evaluate whether these variables are presenting consistent trends or oscillations that can be associated to global warming or climate variability; and c) relate θ to the number of wildfires and the burned area in Durango, Mexico. A mass balance approach estimated daily variables of the water cycle using sub-models for I and Et to calculate Q and θ for a time series from 1945 to 2007. Regression and auto-regressive and moving averaging (ARIMA) techniques evaluated the statistical significance of trends. The cumulative standardized z value magnified and ARIMA models projected statistically similar monthly and annual time series data of all variables of the water cycle. Regression analysis and ARIMA models showed monthly and annual P, I, E, and Et, Q, and θ do not follow consistent up or downward linear tendencies over time with statistical significance; they rather follow oscillations that could be adequately predicted by ARIMA models (r2 ≥ 0.70). There was a consistent statistical association (p ≤ 0.05) of θ with the number of wildfires and the area burned regardless of the different spatial scales used in evaluating these variables. The analysis shows seasonal variability is increasing over time as magnifying pulses of dryness and wetness, which may be the response of the hydrological cycle to climate change. Further research must center on using longer time series data, testing seasonal variability with additional statistical analysis, and incorporating new variables in the analysis.
Navar J.,Natural Resource Management
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2011
Stemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600m2ha-1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5m×5m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α=0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients appear to explain the increase of the stemflow coefficient from trees to stands. Stemflow replenishes soil moisture on the average 4.5 (1.4) times larger than does incident rainfall in open soils and appear to contribute to aquifer recharge in temperate forests due to a combination of shallow soils, high infiltration fluxes and the stemflow volume generated during rainfalls with depths >15mm. Tracing studies should be conducted to test the hypothesis of the stemflow contribution to aquifer recharge in temperate forests of northeastern Mexico. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.