Fan Q.,Indiana University |
Gu D.,Indiana University |
He M.,Indiana University |
He M.,Wuhan University |
And 9 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011
The link of hedgehog (Hh) signaling activation to human cancer and synthesis of a variety of Hh signaling inhibitors raise great expectation that inhibiting Hh signaling may be effective in human cancer treatment. Cyclopamine (Cyc), an alkaloid from the Veratrum plant, is a specific natural product inhibitor of the Hh pathway that acts by targeting smoothened (SMO) protein. However, its poor solubility, acid sensitivity, and weak potency relative to other Hh antagonists prevent the clinical development of Cyc as a therapeutic agent. Here, we report properties of cyclopamine tartrate salt (CycT) and its activities in Hh signaling-mediated cancer in vitro and in vivo. Unlike Cyc, CycT is water soluble (5-10 mg/mL). The median lethal dose (LD50) of CycT was 62.5 mg/kg body weight compared to 43.5 mg/kg for Cyc, and the plasma half-life (T1/2) of CycT was not significantly different from that of Cyc. We showed that CycT had a higher inhibitory activity for Hh signaling-dependent motor neuron differentiation than did Cyc (IC50 = 50 nmol/L for CycT vs. 300 nmol/L for Cyc). We also tested the antitumor effectiveness of these Hh inhibitors using two mouse models of basal cell carcinomas (K14cre:Ptch1neo/neo and K14cre:SmoM2YFP). After topical application of CycT or Cyc daily for 21 days, we found that all CycT-treated mice had tumor shrinkage and decreased expression of Hh target genes. Taken together, we found that CycT is an effective inhibitor of Hh signaling-mediated carcinogenesis.
Lee S.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Welch K.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Panter K.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Gardner D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014
In the late 1960s, the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine was isolated from the plant Veratrum californicum and identified as the teratogen responsible for craniofacial birth defects including cyclops in the offspring of sheep grazing on mountain ranges in the western United States. Cyclopamine was found to inhibit the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in embryonic development. More recently, aberrant Hh signaling has been implicated in several types of cancer. Thus, inhibitors of the Hh signaling pathway, including cyclopamine derivatives, have been targeted as potential treatments for certain cancers and other diseases associated with the Hh signaling pathway. A brief history of cyclopamine and cyclopamine derivatives investigated for the treatment of cancer is presented. © 2014 American Chemical Society.