Elizabeth Alter S.,York College |
Elizabeth Alter S.,The Graduate Center, CUNY |
Elizabeth Alter S.,American Museum of Natural History |
Meyer M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology |
And 15 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2015
Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is known about the history of Atlantic gray whales or their relationship to the extant Pacific population, the extirpation of the Atlantic population during historical times has been attributed to whaling. We used a combination of ancient and modern DNA, radiocarbon dating and predictive habitat modelling to better understand the distribution of gray whales during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that dispersal between the Pacific and Atlantic was climate dependent and occurred both during the Pleistocene prior to the last glacial period and the early Holocene immediately following the opening of the Bering Strait. Genetic diversity in the Atlantic declined over an extended interval that predates the period of intensive commercial whaling, indicating this decline may have been precipitated by Holocene climate or other ecological causes. These first genetic data for Atlantic gray whales, particularly when combined with predictive habitat models for the year 2100, suggest that two recent sightings of gray whales in the Atlantic may represent the beginning of the expansion of this species' habitat beyond its currently realized range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lister A.M.,Natural History Museum in London |
Dimitrijevic V.,University of Belgrade |
Markovic Z.,Natural History Museum |
Knezevic S.,University of Belgrade |
Mol D.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam
Quaternary International | Year: 2012
The Kostolac mammoth was discovered in 2009 in Pleistocene deposits adjacent to the Drmno open-cast lignite mine in the Serbian Danube Basin. On the basis of cranial and dental features, the individual is identified as the so-called 'steppe' mammoth, Mammuthus trogontherii. The remains are those of an old male of estimated age around 62 years, and comprise one of the most complete and best-preserved known skeletons of this species, and the first from the region. Skeletal height is estimated as around four metres, and body mass 9.5 t. The excellent preservation of the skeleton provides new information about the osteology of M. trogontherii, an evolutionary intermediate between the better-known ancestral mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis and woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. The find is also remarkable for the articulated condition of the skeleton, the animal occupying a crouching posture which is probably little-altered from its original death position. This and the depositional environment of the skeleton, a broad, fast-flowing river, suggest that the animal died in relatively shallow water and was very rapidly buried in river sediments. Based on the known European record of typical (large-sized) M. trogontherii of this kind, the age of the Kostolac skeleton and its enclosing sediments is between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Jia F.,Sun Yat Sen University |
van Vondel B.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam
ZooKeys | Year: 2011
A revised checklist of Haliplidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) of China is presented. A new species Haliplus (Haliplus) latreillei sp. n. is described from Guizhou, China. Three species, Haliplus (Haliplidius) confines Stephens, Haliplus (Haliplus) ruficollis (De Geer) and Haliplus (Haliplus) sibricus Motschulsky are reported from China for the first time. Haliplus dalmatinus Müller is excluded from the list of Chinese species. A number of new provincial records from China is presented. © Fenglong Jia, Bernhard van Vondel.
Rivals F.,Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social |
Mihlbachler M.C.,York College |
Mihlbachler M.C.,American Museum of Natural History |
Solounias N.,York College |
And 5 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010
The paleodietary ecology of Late Pleistocene ungulate faunas of the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem was investigated at Fairbanks (Alaska) and Brown Bank (North Sea) through dental mesowear and microwear analysis. The purpose of the study is to address questions concerning the paleoecology of the Mammoth Steppe, an ecosystem that has no extant analog. Dental wear patterns indicate that the niche partitioning at Brown Bank (BB) region was consistent with ecosystem dynamics found in diverse ungulate faunas in recent time. In contrast, despite the lower numbers of extinct taxa, the Fairbanks (FB) fauna is ecologically bizarre. In general, the microwear of this fauna includes excessive numbers of very (narrow) fine scratches that are atypical for extant mixed feeders and grazers. Moreover, the mesowear signal suggests unusual paleodiets (niche dynamics), where low-crowned mixed-feeding cervids, Rangifer and Cervus, adopted diets that are similar to Equus in terms of mesowear (abrasion) and much more abrasive than the diets of either Bison or Ovis. We suggest that the anomalies may relate to unique, possibly disharmonious, ecosystem dynamics during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. In addition to these findings, it was discovered (found) that dental wear patterns, particularly microwear variables such as scratch frequency and scratch width are strongly affected by geographic region, irrespective of species-specific dietary preferences. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Decae A.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam |
Pantini P.,Museo Civico di Science Naturali E. Caffi di Bergamo |
Isaia M.,University of Turin
Zootaxa | Year: 2015
Three new Nemesia Audouin 1826 species from northern and central Italy are named. They share a combination of sexual characters, not found in other described species. A new species-complex within Nemesia is here referred to as the apenninica group. Within the apenninica group, N. apenninica n. sp., N. hastensis n. sp., and N. pedemontana n. sp. differ in the morphology of the male palpal organ and the female spermathecae. The three species have different kinds of geographical distributions. While N. apenninica and N. hastensis have locally restricted and geographically separated distributions, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of both of these species and extends widely in northern and central Italy. In its periphery, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of species other than the apenninica group, e.g., N. meridionalis (Costa, 1835) in southern Italy and N. manderstjernae (L. Koch, 1871) and N. carminans (Latreille, 1818) in Liguria. Information on burrow structure, phenology and habitat are provided for all three new species. Some aspects of the behavior and feeding are discussed for N. pedemontana and N. hastensis. © 2015 Magnolia Press.
PubMed | University of Turin, Natural History Museum Rotterdam and Museo Civico di Science Naturali E. Caffi di Bergamo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015
Three new Nemesia Audouin 1826 species from northern and central Italy are named. They share a combination of sexual characters, not found in other described species. A new species-complex within Nemesia is here referred to as the apenninica group. Within the apenninica group, N. apenninica n. sp., N. hastensis n. sp., and N. pedemontana n. sp. differ in the morphology of the male palpal organ and the female spermathecae. The three species have different kinds of geographical distributions. While N. apenninica and N. hastensis have locally restricted and geographically separated distributions, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of both of these species and extends widely in northern and central Italy. In its periphery, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of species other than the apenninica group, e.g., N. meridionalis (Costa, 1835) in southern Italy and N. manderstjernae (L. Koch, 1871) and N. carminans (Latreille, 1818) in Liguria. Information on burrow structure, phenology and habitat are provided for all three new species. Some aspects of the behavior and feeding are discussed for N. pedemontana and N. hastensis.
van Dam J.A.,Institute Catal Of Paleontologia Icp |
van den Hoek Ostende L.W.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Naturalis |
Reumer J.W.F.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam
Geobios | Year: 2011
A new Miocene shrew from east Central Spain is described. The new form, named Turiasorex pierremeini nov. gen., nov. sp., was found in 13-10-Ma old sediments of the Calatayud-Daroca and Teruel basins. It is characterized by an extreme dental morphology consisting of elements with low length-width ratios, implying a relatively short snout. Such an adaptation could point to a hypogeal life style - using burrows made by other mammals - with a non-standard shrew diet consisting not only of insects, but also of earthworms and possibly small vertebrates such as lizards. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Kevrekidis C.,Paleontological and Historical Museum of Ptolemaida |
Kevrekidis C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Mol D.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam
Quaternary International | Year: 2015
Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus is a well-known elephant species of the Middle and Late Pleistocene of Europe, but few skeletons so far have been described in detail. Here we present a detailed account of a partial skeleton in good condition from the alluvial sands of the Amyntaio coal mines, Macedonia, Greece. It represents a large male aged in its forties. Based on extant and extinct elephant specimens, the Amyntaio's elephant estimated height at the shoulder is 3.5 m and its weight close to 9 tonnes. A CT scan was performed on the deformed fifth metacarpal which was diagnosed with osteomyelitis, probably rendering the animal lame. No signs of further biologically induced ante- or post-mortem modifications were detected. From that skeleton the first known basihyoid bone of E. antiquus is recovered; comparisons with homologous bones of other elephantid taxa show it has a very distinct morphology and can be used in phylogenetic studies of the Elephantidae family. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
Decae A.E.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam
Arachnologische Mitteilungen | Year: 2012
Three different male and female super-specific types are distinguished according to variations in the morphology of the bulb and spermathecae within the genus Nemesia Audouin, 1826. Plotting the distributions of these sexual types on a map of the Mediterranean indicates the existence of geography-related sub-generic diversity in which the Nemesia fauna of the eastern Mediterranean differs markedly from that of the western Mediterranean. While the eastern Mediterranean Nemesia fauna is highly homogeneous, the fauna of the western Mediterranean is very diverse. The eastern and western Nemesia faunae appear to overlap in the central Mediterranean. Efforts to relate the specific bulb types to the particular types of spermathecae described here were only partly successful.
den Ouden N.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity |
Reumer J.W.F.,Natural History Museum Rotterdam |
Reumer J.W.F.,University Utrecht |
van den Hoek Ostende L.W.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity
Quaternary International | Year: 2012
A trend toward a smaller body size and increased sexual dimorphism for the latest populations of woolly mammoth is mentioned in the literature. This paper reviews the evidence using dental data, and concludes that dental data do not show this trend. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.