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He L.,Hubei University | Wang Y.,Hubei University | Woods A.,California State University, Fullerton | Li G.,Hubei University | And 2 more authors.
Palaios | Year: 2013

Abundant calcareous tubeworms have been found in both shallow platform and deep basin deposits after the end-Permian mass extinction in the Cili area, South China. Tubeworms from the microbialites deposited on the shallow platform appear to be cone-shaped tubes with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 1.8 mm (mean 1.1 mm), while those attached to Claraia, the most abundant bivalve fossil preserved in the deep basin deposits after the mass extinction, are planispiral tubes with smaller diameters (0.5-1.5 mm, mean 0.9 mm). The calcareous tubeworms are identified as Microconchida (Tentaculita) according to the typical laminated sheet texture of the tubeworms found on the shallow platform. The difference in morphology between the cone-shaped tubeworms found in the microbialites and the planispiral tubeworms attached to Claraia in deeper water deposits may be related to differences in how fast the surrounding sediments were accumulating. Bacterially mediated precipitation of calcium carbonate led to rapid accumulation of the microbialites that forced the tubeworms to grow upward so as to keep up with the rate of microbialite growth and led to the cone-shaped tubes found there, whereas the slowly accumulating sediments surrounding the tubeworm-encrusted Claraia led to the development of the planispiral forms in basin deposits. Calcareous tubeworms found in the shallow platform and colonizing the shells of bivalve Claraia in basin deposits indicates calcareous tubeworms, as a significant disaster form, should have benefited from the opening of ecological space by the extinction of most marine invertebrates. Widespread oceanic anoxia has long been considered to be one of the extraordinary conditions after the end-Permian mass extinction. Tubeworm fossils flourishing in basin deposits within the short interval near the Permian-Triassic boundary implies that the deepwater environment immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction may not have been as anoxic as previously thought. Copyright © 2012, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).


He L.,Hubei University | Wang Y.,Hubei University | Woods A.,California State University, Fullerton | Li G.,Hubei University | And 2 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2013

Widespread oceanic anoxia has been consistently considered as a main characteristic of the oceanic environment after the end-Permian mass extinction. However, newly obtained pyrite framboid data suggest otherwise from a deep shelf setting (Changtanhe section) of northwestern Hunan province in South China. Our results reveal that an oxygenation event occurred immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction in this section, where the redox conditions of bottom water changed from lower dysoxic to upper dysoxic during the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) transition. The oxygenation event likely resulted from mixing of deep dysoxic bottom waters with shallow, oxygenated waters triggered by enhanced upwelling and seawater circulation as well as the large regression during the P/Tr transition. These may also be the cause of the partial remission of dysoxic conditions immediately after the end-Permian mass extinction in other deep shelf settings, especially in South China. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Shi G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Shi G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou Z.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Xie Z.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Premise of the Study: Calocedrus is among the genera with a typical eastern Asian-western North American disjunct distribution today. The origin of its modern distribution pattern can be better understood by examining its fossil record. • Methods: The present article reports for the first time a new fossil species of this genus based on compressed material from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China, in its present major distribution area in eastern Asia. • Key Results: Calocedrus huashanensis sp. nov. is most similar to the two extant eastern Asian species, C. macrolepis and C. formosana, in gross morphology of foliage shoots and bears a close resemblance to the latter in cuticle structure. It shows a general similarity to the North American fossil representatives of the genus in alternately branched foliage shoots but is clearly different from the European Paleogene species characterized by oppositely branched leafy shoots. • Conclusions: This discovery provides new evidence for the floristic exchange of this genus between eastern Asia and North America before the Oligocene (most likely in the Eocene), presumably via the Bering land bridge. The flattened leafy shoots and dimorphic leaves with thin cuticle, open stomatal pits, and shallowly sunken guard cells of the present fossils suggest a rather humid climate during the Oligocene in the Ningming area, South China. © 2012 Botanical Society of America.


Shi G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Shi G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou Z.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Xie Z.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2011

The present paper reports a new species of Cupressus based on compressed material from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of the Ningming County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. The foliage shoots described as Cupressus guangxiensis sp. nov. are almost identical with those of the extant species Cupressus funebris, which is considered primitive among the genus, in gross morphology as well as cuticular structure. Their foliage shoots are similarly flattened and alternately branched, bearing weakly dimorphic, amphistomatic scale leaves with serrate and scariose margin. Associated seed cones are also comparable to those of the same extant species in shape and size. The morphogenera and organ genera related to Cupressus-like fossils are briefly reviewed. Available fossil evidence appears to be in accordance with Farjon's inference that the evolutionary trend in the genus Cupressus leads from some species with dimorphic leaves and smaller cones as C. funebris to those with monomorphic leaves and larger cones. This is the first fossil record of Cupressus with well-preserved cuticle in Asia. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Tong H.,30 Rue Carnot | Mo J.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Geological Magazine | Year: 2010

A new taxon of nanhsiungchelyid turtle, Jiangxichelys ganzhouensis n. g. n. sp., is described on the basis of a complete shell from the latest Cretaceous of Ganzhou, Jiangxi Province, China. It is close to Hanbodgemys, but different from the latter in having a boot-shaped second marginal scute reaching the first vertebral scute, a larger first suprapygal, a large fifth vertebral extending onto the tenth peripheral, narrower lateral marginal scutes and a narrower posterior plastral lobe. This discovery adds a new element to the scanty record of nanhsiungchelyids from southern China and illustrates the diversity of the family in that area. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.


Li D.,Wuhan University | Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Tian F.,Tiandong County Museum | Liao W.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Stone bark cloth beaters are considered part of the archaeological package that is considered to be associated with the Austronesian expansion from southern China across the Pacific. Here, we present evidence from the Dingmo Site in Bubing basin in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China of a bark cloth beater excavated in situ from a stratigraphic layer AMS dated to 7898±34BP. Based on current evidence, the Dingmo bark cloth beater is ~1300 years older than the previously reported oldest bark cloth beater from the Xiantouling Site in Shenzhen, Guangdong. The implications of this new finding are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Bae C.J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Huang S.,Nanning Museum | Huang X.,Youjiang District | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2014

The Bose (also Baise) Basin in Guangxi, southern China is well known for the presence of Paleolithic bifacially worked implements. The Bose Basin handaxes came to the attention of the international scientific community primarily for two reasons: 1) the age at 803 ka (thousands of years), places it at the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition; and 2) the presence of bifaces tests the validity of the Movius Line and whether it was time to simply discard the model. However, questions were almost immediately raised because the age was based on the supposed association of Australasian tektites that may or may not have been redeposited, and at the time of the initial publications all of the Bose Basin handaxes were surface collected. Thus, whether the Bose bifaces can necessarily be associated with the tektites and whether the tektites themselves were redeposited are important considerations. Here, we report the findings from recent excavations from the Fengshudao site located in the Bose Basin. The primary findings are: 1) the in situ excavation of tektites, which do not appear to have been redeposited, in association with bifaces from one stratigraphic level from one site indicates that the age of these stone tools should be around 803 ka; 2) the Fengshudao hominins were utilizing locally-available quartz, quartzite, and sandstone river cobbles; and 3) in a number of aspects, the Fengshudao handaxe morphology differs from the typical western Acheulean, and are quite large and thick compared with even the bifaces from other regions of eastern Asia (e.g., Luonan Basin, China; Imjin/Hantan River Basins, Korea). Although Fengshudao may be a case of western Acheulean hominins dispersing into the Bose Basin from nearby South Asia, it is quite possible that the Fengshudao bifaces can be considered an example of convergent evolution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen G.J.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Chang M.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Here we describe †Huashancyprinus robustispinus, gen. et sp. nov, a fossil cyprinin fish from the Oligocene of Ningming Basin, Guangxi, South China. It differs from all other cyprinin fishes in the following apomorphic characters: extremely robust last unbranched dorsal and anal fin rays with very fine serrations along posterior edge, the crowns of pharyngeal teeth A2 and A3 with a number of deep grooves on the lateral wall, rather large A3, and relatively deep infraorbital 2. Among the members of the Tribe Cyprinini sensu stricto, it mostly resembles the extant genus Cyprinus, particularly to species Cyprinus micristius and C. fuxianensis, which are restricted to Yunnan, southwestern China. The discovery of the cyprinin †Huashancyprinus from southern China, along with the previously known late Eocene †Cyprinus maomingensis, indicates an early branching of the Cyprininae (Cyprinidae) in this area. © 2011 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shi G.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Shi G.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou Z.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology | Xie Z.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2010

Cephalotaxus ningmingensis sp. nov. is described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China on the basis of leafy shoots and detached leaves with well preserved cuticle. This is the first fossil record of Cephalotaxus in the low latitude tropical area. The new species has been compared with living and other fossil species hitherto described of the genus. It is most similar to the living Cephalotaxus oliveri Masters and Cephalotaxus bonseri (Knowlton) Chaney et Axelrod from the Miocene of Spokane, North America in leaf gross morphology and epidermal characters. A cladistic analysis based on epidermal characters is made for all described fossil species of the genus Cephalotaxus, with Thomasiocladus zamioides Florin, which is believed to be the earliest reliable fossil of Cephalotaxaceae, as an out-group. The analysis shows that fossil species of Cephalotaxus may be divided into three phylogenetic groups and the group containing C. ningmingensis is basal in the genus. The presence of the epiphyllous fungus Callimothallus pertusus Dilcher on leaves of C. ningmingensis likely indicates a humid climate during the Oligocene in Guangxi. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wang W.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Liao W.,Natural History Museum of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region | Li D.,Guangxi Museum of Nationalities | Tian F.,Tiandong County Museum
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

The Mohui fauna, associated with Gigantopithecus blacki, has been recovered from the Pleistocene karst cave deposit in Bubing Basin, Guangxi, South China. The large-mammalian assemblage derives from 28 species, 15 of which have no historic descendants. Occurrence of some ancient species implies that this fauna is early Early Pleistocene, such as Hystrix magna, Sinomastodon yangziensis, Stegodon huananensis, Ailuropoda microta, Pachycrocuta licenti, Tapirus sanyuanensis, Hespertherium sp., and Dorcabune liuchengense. Comparisons to already-dated early Pleistocene faunas in South China, combined with preliminary paleomagnetic, electron spin resonance (ESR) and U-series analysis of this cave, indicate mammalian fauna age around 1.7 Ma. Comparisons to five faunal assemblages in the same basin show species-level differences in Ailuropoda, Stegodon, Hystrix, Tapirus, and Sus, implying the large-mammal fauna has passed through a slow process of evolution during the Quaternary in East Asia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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