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Matsuzawa T.,Chiba University | Tanaka R.,Chiba University | Horie Y.,Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba | Gonoi T.,Chiba University | Yaguchi T.,Chiba University
Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology | Year: 2010

Aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by Aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. The genus Emericella is a teleomorph related to the Aspergillus section Nidulantes. The typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is Aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The mortality rate of osteomyelitis in CGD patients due to A. nidulans (E. nidulans) is very high compared to that due to A. fumigatus. Moreover, two Emericella species (E. nidulans and E. quadrilineata) from clinical specimens exhibit different sensitivities against several antifungal drugs. In aspergillosis, correct species identification is important for antifungal therapy. We attempted to develop rapid and specific molecular discrimination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods in the principal pathogenic Emericella species, and succeeded in establishing species-specific primers corresponding to the hydrophobin gene. These primers discriminate E. nidulans and E. quadrilineata rapidly and specifically. These methods and primers make it possible to diagnose etiological agents in aspergillosis quickly and easily. Source


Komai T.,Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba | Nishi E.,Yokohama National University | Taru M.,Toho University | Taru M.,DIV Corporation
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A new species of the pea crab genus Pinnixa White, 1846 (Pinnotheridae), P. banzu n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of four specimens from Banzu, an estuary of the Obitsu River, Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. All the specimens examined were associated with the polychaete tube worm Chaetopterus cautus Marenzeller, 1879 (Chaetopteridae). The new species is very similar to P. chaetopterana Stimpson, 1860 from the western Atlantic, P. occidentalis Rathbun, 1894 from northwest North America, and P. rathbuni Sakai, 1934 from East Asia. It is distinguished from the latter three species by characters of the carapace, ambulatory legs, male abdomen, and male first gonopod. It is suggested that previous records reporting on the association of P. rathbuni with Chaetopterus tube worms might be actually referred to the new species. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source


Anker A.,University of Florida | Komai T.,Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

A new species of alpheid shrimp, Athanas ahyongi sp. nov., is described based on two type specimens from Nosy-Bé, Madagascar, and one additional specimen from Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. The new species differs from all other species of Athanas by a unique combination of morphological features, mostly on the frontal region and chelipeds, and has a very characteristic colour pattern. The specimens from Nosy-Bé were collected from burrows of unknown hosts, suggesting a commensal life style. Copyright © 2010 · Magnolia Press. Source


Reimer J.D.,University of Ryukyus | Reimer J.D.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Hirose M.,University of Ryukyus | Yanagi K.,Chiba Biodiversity Center | And 2 more authors.
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

The Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands are oceanic islands approximately 1000 km south of mainland Japan noted for their high levels of both terrestrial and marine endemicity. Despite their unique location, the marine fauna of many taxa remains relatively under-examined. In this study, we specifically investigated the diversity of shallow water zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) and their symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) of the Ogasawara Islands for the first time. Using in situ field examinations combined with DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, our results show the presence of five zoanthid species in the Ogasawara Islands; Zoanthus sansibaricus, Z. kuroshio, Palythoa tuberculosa, P. mutuki, and one potentially undescribed species of Palythoa. While most collected specimens were in symbiosis with clade C Symbiodinium as seen in southern Japan and other Indo-Pacific locations, one specimen of Z. kuroshio was unexpectedly in symbiosis with clade A, and no Z. sansibaricus colonies contained specific C1z type zooxanthellae previously observed at other locations. Overall, the Ogasawara Islands showed a lower zooxanthellate zoanthid species diversity (n = 5) than the non-oceanic Okinawa Islands (n > 10), which are at roughly the same latitude. Instead, the islands' relatively depauperate zoanthid/symbiont fauna more closely resembles that of the northern Izu Islands. © 2011 The Natural History Museum. Source


Reimer J.D.,University of Ryukyus | Reimer J.D.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Shah M.M.R.,University of Ryukyus | Sinniger F.,Florida State University | And 4 more authors.
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2010

The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is generally found in many tropical and subtropical marine invertebrates. Recently, reports have focused on free-living types. We examined free-living Symbiodinium from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, a group of oceanic islands south of Japan. Examining sand samples, seven of eight initial isolates were successfully cultured. Genetic analyses of 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions reveal that one isolate cultured with only IMK was identical to clade A isolated from coral reef sand in Okinawa, and four additional isolates cultured with only IMK comprised a new clade A lineage. Additionally, two isolates cultured with IMK and soil extract were closely related to a little-known divergent lineage within clade D. Our results demonstrate some free-living Symbiodinium types may have very wide distributions, and that utilizing different culturing techniques will further discovery of unique Symbiodinium lineages from environmental samples. © 2010 Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer. Source

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