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Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanchez D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muguerza B.,Natraceutical Group | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Cial | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food Research International | Year: 2011

We investigate the mechanisms involved in the long-term antihypertensive effect of a polyphenol-rich cocoa powder, named CocoanOX® (CCX), in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We have carried out two different batches of experiments. For the first batch of experiments, forty 3 week-old male SHR were randomly divided with ad libitum intake into four groups of 10 animals, that respectively received the following drinking fluids up to the 20th week of life (treatment period): tap water (control), CCX 100 mg/kg/day, CCX 200 mg/kg/day and CCX 400 mg/kg/day. Five 20 week-old rats of each group were sacrificed by decapitation. From the 20th to 24th week of life all the remaining animals were given tap water (follow-up period), and all of them were sacrificed at the end of the follow-up period. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione in the liver, plasma and aorta angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma angiotensin II were determined in all the sacrificed SHR that were included in this batch of experiments. Plasma MDA decreased and liver reduced glutathione increased in the 20 week-old CCX treated SHR. These effects were not observed in the rats that were sacrificed after the follow-up period. CCX treatment did not modify aorta ACE activity, but the activity of ACE and the levels of angiotensin II increased in the plasma of the SHR treated with the highest dose of CCX. ACE activity returned to basal values in the SHR that were sacrificed after the follow-up period. However, angiotensin II levels were slightly higher after withdrawal of CCX.For the second batch of experiments we used aorta rings obtained from untreated SHR, and we evaluated the relaxation caused by CCX in different aorta preparations. CCX relaxed the intact aorta preparations but this cocoa did not relax the endothelium-denuded aorta rings from the untreated SHR. l-NAME, but not indomethacin, inhibited the relaxation caused by CCX in the SHR aorta rings. We postulate that the antihypertensive effect of CCX might be mediated by an improvement of endothelial release of nitric oxide and by a reduction of oxidative stress. The inhibition of ACE could be implicated in the antihypertensive effect of CCX. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miguel M.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of Alimentacion | Muguerza B.,Natraceutical Group | Muguerza B.,Rovira i Virgili University | Aleixandre A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food and Function | Year: 2011

In this study, we evaluated the short-term effect of a cocoa polyphenol extract (CPE), in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male 17-22-week-old SHR were administered by intragastric gavage water, 50 mg kg-1 Captopril or CPE at different doses (13, 26, 80 and 160 mg kg-1). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded by the tail cuff method before the administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-administration. Highly significant decreases in the SBP and in the DBP were observed when captopril or CPE was administered to SHR. The cocoa extract produced a dose dependent effect in the SBP of the SHR up to the dose of 80 mg kg-1. Nevertheless this dose of CPE did not decrease the arterial blood pressure in the normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. The decrease in the SBP caused by 80 mg kg-1 of CPE in the SHR (-39.1 ± 3.7 mm Hg) was maximum 6 h post-administration, and the initial values of SBP were recovered 72 h post-administration of this extract. Paradoxically, 160 mg kg-1 of the cocoa extract caused a decreased antihypertensive effect than lower doses of CPE. In addition, the decrease in DBP was always more accentuated when the dose of CPE administered was lower. Our results suggest that CPE may be used as a functional food ingredient with beneficial effects for controlling arterial blood pressure. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Sanchez D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moulay L.,Natraceutical Group | Muguerza B.,Natraceutical Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The effect produced by long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP) on the development of hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Twenty male 3-week-old SHR were divided into two groups of 10 animals that drank either tap water (control) or a solution of SCFP (0.75 g/day SCFP) until the 20th week of life. Five 20-week-old rats of each group were sacrificed. Tap water as drinking fluid was given to all the animals from the 20th to 24th week of life. The 24-week-old rats were also sacrificed. Body weight, liquid and dry food intake, and arterial blood pressure (tail cuff) were recorded weekly. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma from the sacrificed rats were also obtained, and we evaluated the relaxation caused by acetylcholine in the aorta from these animals. SCFP attenuated the development of hypertension in SHR; however, the withdrawal of SCFP caused an increase in blood pressure in the rats. Body weight gain was slower in the group treated with SCFP. SCFP increased liquid intake but decreased dry food intake in the rats. SCFP decreased plasma MDA concentrations and slightly decreased plasma ACE activity, but no differences were observed in plasma glucose and in the aorta responses to acetylcholine in both groups of 20-week-old SHR. We have demonstrated the antihypertensive and antioxidant properties of SCFP. The control of body weight and the control of increased angiotensin Il may be involved in the antihypertensive effect of this product. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Sanchez D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moulay L.,Natraceutical Group | Muguerza B.,Natraceutical Group | Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2010

The effects of a soluble cocoa fiber (SCF) were studied in Zucker fatty rats. Two groups of Zucker fatty rats were fed the following diets: standard diet and 5% SCF-enriched diet. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was used for results comparison with obese Zucker animals. Solid and liquid intakes, body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were recorded weekly. At the end of the experimental period insulin was determined, and fat apparent digestibility (FAD) and insulin resistance were calculated. The Zucker fatty rats fed 5% SCF-enriched diet showed less weight gain and food intake than those fed the standard diet. The group fed the fiber-enriched diet showed lower values of the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels than the standard group. FAD was also lower in the fiber group. Both SBP and DBP were decreased. In addition, SCF reduced plasma glucose and insulin, and as a consequence the insulin resistance was also decreased. Our data demonstrate that SCF resulted in an improvement of the studied risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Source


Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanchez D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muguerza B.,Natraceutical Group | Moulay L.,Natraceutical Group | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

We have evaluated the effect of the long-term intake of a cocoa powder, with high concentration of polyphenols, named CocoanOX (CCX), on the development of hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly in the rats, from the 6th to 24th week of life, by the tail cuff method. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or CCX. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the group treated with captopril, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the group treated with the lowest dose of CCX than in the other CCX groups. The arterial blood pressure increased in the treated SHR when the corresponding antihypertensive treatment was removed. Both, CCX and the standard cocoa, improved the aorta endothelial function in the SHR. In conclusion, CCX could be used as a functional food ingredient with antihypertensive activity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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